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The elasticity of ligaments allows the movement of joints.


Ligaments join two bones and are responsible for the stability of joints. If a ligament has no elasticity and is not stretchy, joints cannot be moved.

As shown in the image, tendons attach muscles to bones. Unlike ligaments, tendons are not flexible, and if stretched too far, will stiffen.


Ligaments are meant to help you slowly and progressively increase flexibility, and moving too fast or suddenly will cause your ligament to tear. Ligaments, therefore, by being only slightly flexible, offer protection by limiting movement.

Excessive stretching, as mentioned above, can damage ligaments and in the process decrease the stability of joints.

[Referred, see more - https://nianow.com/story/2012/02/awareness-of-ligaments-and-tendons-sensing-stability

For common ligament injuries, see https://www.visiblebody.com/blog/common-ligament-injuries-and-disorders ]


The uterus will release stored blood and nutrients, in a process called menstruation and also commonly called a "period".


A woman's reproductive system works on a roughly 28-day cycle (some women having faster systems, others slower). The cycle, called the Menstruation Cycle, is the process where an unfertilized egg is released from an ovary and has a chance to become fertilized.

Here's an overview of the anatomy involved:rubycup.com

An egg (during Ovulation) makes its way from an ovary (they alternate each month in releasing eggs), through the associated fallopian tube (during the Luteal Phase), and into the uterus.

The uterus, at the start of the cycle, begins to fill with blood and nutrients, in preparation for receiving and nurturing a fertilized egg.

If fertilization occurs, pregnancy results - the uterus houses the fertilized egg as it divides and specializes and over the course of 9 months becomes a baby.

If fertilization does not occur (and usually it doesn't - consider that a woman's Menstruation Cycle typically starts in or around age 12 and will continue until the 40+ year old mark, and so that is roughly #12xx30=360# full cycles a woman can have in her lifetime), the stored blood and nutrients are released through a process commonly called menstruation, which is also known as a "period". That process takes roughly 5 days and is preparation for the uterus to start its next storing of blood and nutrients, getting ready for the next egg.

Here's a graphic to help see the Cycle:



Farsighted eye can not properly see near objects: because light from near objects tend to meet beyond retina.



Farsighted condition is called hyperopia or hypermetropia. The problem could be due to slightly smaller size of eyeball in young children, which naturally gets corrected as the eyeball grows in size with age.

People nearing 40 or above may also suffer from farsightedness but they are not able to focus image of near objects on retina due to a more stiffened condition of lens (i.e. elasticity of lens is lost as we undergo ageing). The condition is called presbyopia, a problem that develops due to insufficient accommodation of lens with ageing.

The condition could be corrected by using converging lens.




Each of these organs has an important role in the digestive system.


The stomach is a J-shaped sack in the abdomen. Its internal surface is lined with a thin layer of mucus, which prevents the stomach from digesting itself via the gastric acid the stomach secretes, which is a blend of hydrochloric acid and a number of enzymes, including pepsin.

The small intestine is a long, thin tube beneath the stomach. Tiny bumps called villi absorb the dissolved nutrients from the food into the bloodstream, where the nutrients are carried to organs immediately while the leftover nutrients are tucked away for a rainy day.

The large intestine's job is to absorb all of the water from what's left of the food.


Read below:


Urine is formed in the nephrons of the kidneys and it is passed down the ureters therefrom to the urinary bladder. Now how is it formed?

It is formed when the blood reaches the malpighian tubule that is composed of the bowman's capsule and glomerulus. Her most of the blood plasma is filtered out into the bowman's capsule and is taken down the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Most of the water and proteins are reabsorbed here. Active as well as passive reabsorption occurs here.

The resulting fluid passes down the loop of henle. Electrolytes like Na+ and K+ are reabsorbed here. The fluid then passes on to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Tubular secretion takes place here.

All the absorption takes place in the peritubular capillaries.

This fluid then passes on to the collecting duct where the tissues reabsorb some urea from it.

Several such collecting ducts meet to pour their fluids - now known as urine - into the ureter. The ureter meets the urinary bladder and pours urine into it. When the bladder is full, the stretch receptors come to work and snd the signal to brain and we feel the urge to micturate.


chemical digestion


HCl (hydrochloric acid) aids in chemical digestion in the stomach.

Most proteins begin digestion in the stomach. Cells of the stomach secrete the inactive zymogen pepsinogen, which is an enzyme that is activated by HCl. In its active form, pepsinogen is called pepsin. Pepsin breaks the peptide bonds that link amino acids.

Thus, HCl is involved in chemical digestion of proteins in the stomach.

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