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Interstitial cells of Leydig.


Interstitial cells also known as Leydig cells are present in intertubular spaces i.e. adjacent to seminiferous tubules of testes. These cells are responsible for the successful production of male sex hormone i.e testosterone.

enter image source here


#"Additional Information:"#

  1. Interstitial cells secrete testosterone under the influence of ICSH or Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary.
  2. Testosterone is essential for the successful production of sperms and it also control the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty.

Hope it hepls...


The Appendicular Skeleton in composed of all of the bones of the Arms and Legs and Girdles.


The Skeleton in vertebrates is divided into two parts: axial and appendicular. In human, there are 126 bones in appendicular skeleton.

The Appendicular Skeleton is composed of all of the bones of the arms (=fore limb), legs (=hind limb) and girdles to which limbs are attached. Girdle for attachment of arm is pectoral and that for leg is pelvic.

The Axial Skeleton is composed of the bones of the head, spinal column and thorax (=rib cage).

enter image source here


Overall, alcohol affects the brain a lot. Cerebellum first shows immediate effect of alcohol after consumption. Let's think of it as, Long-Term effects and Short-Term effects.


The effects of alcohol really depends on how much alcohol you drink. If you were to drink only one to two drinks, the effects won't be as severe as drinking couple of bottles every day (binge drinking).

What is alcohol?

Alcohol is a depressant that affects your vision, coordination, reaction time, multitasking ability, judgment, and decision-making.

What are some of the short-term effects of alcohol?

Considering you only take medium doses of alcohol, some short-term effects are;

  • Slurred speech
  • Sleepiness
  • Altered emotions
  • Lower core body temperature
  • Loss of balance

and more.

What are some of the long-term effects of alcohol?

If you are a regular drinking ( Having couple drinks every week ), some long-term effects are,

  • Liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver
  • Brain cells die, decreasing brain mass
  • Lower levels of iron and vitamin B, causing anemia
  • Alcoholism
  • Death

and more.


In the end run, is alcohol good for you and your body?

No, alcohol is not good for you and definitely not good for your body. Sure, it does give you a feeling of relaxation and ease, but in the end, it's not worth your time.


If you are looking for more information on how alcohol affects the brain, please consult your local doctor.


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disorder) by destroying T-cells in your immune system that fight off pathogens.


Although HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) can be spread through sexual fluids like semen and vaginal fluids, it can also be transmitted through blood and breast milk, so it is not strictly just a sexually-transmitted disease. However, it is the most common sexually-transmitted disease (STD) that affects the immune system, and HIV works by destroying special immune cells called T-cells.

T-Cell Count and AIDS:
HIV attacks the CD4 cells (also referred to as T-cells) in your immune system that help destroy pathogens. The estimated T-cell count in most humans ranges between T-cells counts between 500 - 1500. However, As HIV progresses, it can eventually destroy so many of these immune cells that the human body is unable to effectively kill pathogens, like viruses and bacteria. In people who have been effected severely by HIV, like famous basketball player Magic Johnson, this can result in a syndrome called AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disorder), where T-cell count drops below 200. When this happens, the body is extremely susceptible to pathogens, and people with AIDS are extremely vulnerable to a variety of deadly diseases including tuberculosis, meningitis, and pneumonia.


Arteries, veins, capillaries.




  • Carry blood away from the heart and deliver oxygen-rich blood to the tissues of the body (except for the pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood to lungs)
  • Have very elastic wall which help to withstand the pressure created as the heart pumps the blood
  • Each artery is lined by smooth tissue and has three layers:

outer tunica externa, comparatively thicker middle layer tunica media and inner tunica interna/endothelium.



  • Carries deoxygenated blood towards the heart (except pulmonary veins which carries oxygenated blood from lungs)
  • Have thinner nonelastic wall
  • Unlike to arteries they are under low pressure and rely on muscle contractions to return blood to the heart
  • Have valves which prevent the blood from flowing in the opposite direction
  • Also have three layers:


  • Smallest of the body's blood vessels
  • Have very thin wall made of only endothelium
  • Perform oxygen, carbondioxide, nutrients and waste exchange between blood and tissues easily
  • They are connection between veins and arteries



The thickness is about 1.6 mm.


The skin has two principal layers: the epidermis and the dermis.


The dermis contains two layers: the papillary layer and the reticular layer.

The thickness of the skin differs at various body sites.

The thinnest skin is on the eyelids. It is about 0.5 mm thick.

The thickest skin is on the heels of the feet, where it can be up to 5 mm thick.

Here is a chart showing the thickness (in millimetres) of skin on the neck (an average of 121 persons).

#ulbb(color(white)(mmmmmmmmmmmmmll) "layer"color(white)(mmml)"layer"color(white)(mmmmm))#
#"Upper neck"color(white)(mmmll)0.11color(white)(mmmm)0.12color(white)(mmmml)1.44color(white)(mmm)1.67#
#"Lower neck/"#

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