Featured Answers

Active contributors today


Skeletal muscles.


  • Skeletal muscles or voluntary muscles can be controlled by our will.
  • These are also known as striated muscles as well as voluntary muscles.
  • Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

  • It is a formed of striated muscle tissue which is under the 'voluntary' control of the somatic nervous system.

  • Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons.



Here's my understanding of the mechanism.


Hydrochloric acid is produced by the parietal cells in the stomach.


These cells secrete about 60 mL #"HCl"# per hour at a concentration of
roughly 0.16 mol/L.

This is about #3 × 10^6# times the concentration of #"H"^"+"# ions in blood.

Thus, the secretion of hydrochloric acid depends on active transport.

The key player is a proton pump #bb((1)"# located in the cell membrane.

The dissociation of water within the cell generates #"H"^"+"# and #"OH"^"-"# ions.

The #"OH"^"-"# ions combine with #"CO"_2# to form #"HCO"_3^"-"# and are transported out of the cell by anion exchange for #"Cl"^"-"color(white)(l)bb((2))# .

The #"Cl"^"-"# ions are transported out of the cell by conductance channels #bb((3))#.

The proton pump removes #"H"^"+"# ions from the cell in exchange for #"K"^"+"# ions. This effectively recycles the #"K"^"+"# ions.

The net effect is that one #"H"^"+"# ion and one #"Cl"^"-"# ion leave the cell for each water molecule that dissociates.


Overall, alcohol affects the brain a lot. Cerebellum first shows immediate effect of alcohol after consumption. Let's think of it as, Long-Term effects and Short-Term effects.


The effects of alcohol really depends on how much alcohol you drink. If you were to drink only one to two drinks, the effects won't be as severe as drinking couple of bottles every day (binge drinking).

What is alcohol?

Alcohol is a depressant that affects your vision, coordination, reaction time, multitasking ability, judgment, and decision-making.

What are some of the short-term effects of alcohol?

Considering you only take medium doses of alcohol, some short-term effects are;

  • Slurred speech
  • Sleepiness
  • Altered emotions
  • Lower core body temperature
  • Loss of balance

and more.

What are some of the long-term effects of alcohol?

If you are a regular drinking ( Having couple drinks every week ), some long-term effects are,

  • Liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver
  • Brain cells die, decreasing brain mass
  • Lower levels of iron and vitamin B, causing anemia
  • Alcoholism
  • Death

and more.


In the end run, is alcohol good for you and your body?

No, alcohol is not good for you and definitely not good for your body. Sure, it does give you a feeling of relaxation and ease, but in the end, it's not worth your time.


If you are looking for more information on how alcohol affects the brain, please consult your local doctor.


Doctors diagnose placenta accreta through an ultrasound.


Placenta accreta occurs when the placenta becomes deeply attached to the uterine wall and can result in severe blood loss during childbirth. Placenta Accreta may demonstrate vaginal bleeding in some cases, but is usually detected during routine ultrasounds. Treatment for placenta accreta usually involves a C-section, followed by a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus).

Understanding the Placenta
The placenta is an organ that develops during pregnancy that provides both nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. The placenta is connected to the wall of the uterus (womb), and nutrients are absorbed through the placental membrane.https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/human-fetus-placenta-anatomy-diagram-all-613242485

What is Placenta Accreta?
Placenta accreta is a condition where the lining of the placenta becomes too deeply attached to the uterine wall. When delivering the baby, this can result in severe blood loss, because instead of detaching from the womb like a normal placenta, the placenta accreta remains partially attached to the uterine wall during childbirth.


The nerves cells are rather long which enables communication with distant body parts. The dendrites allow for communication with other neurons. Myelin surrounding the axon of a neuron acts as an insulator.



The above example is a very general description. In fact, neurons can be categorized into three groups based on their function:

Sensory neurons:

  • Carry impulses from the receptors (cells that detect the stimuli i.e. heat or pressure) to the central nervous system (CSN).

  • They have longer dendrites and shorter axons due to carrying of impulses from sensory organs to the spinal cord or brain.

  • In general, sensory neurons are very long cells as they have to carry the impulses from the body to the place where the response occurs.

Motor Neurons

  • Carry impulses from the CSN to the effector (cells responding to the stimuli i.e organs, muscles)

  • They have long axons and shorter dendrites due to the passage of impulses from spinal cord or brain to the effector organs/cells.

Relay neurons

  • Co-ordinate responses

  • They are known as link neurons in the CNS due to their function which is to link sensory neurons with the motor neurons





These are the main diaphragms present in our body,which acts as partitioning agent as well as weight bearer.

1 .THE DIAPHRAGM : Present at the junction of thoracic and abdominal cavity.

2 .PELVIC DIAPHRAGM : Present at the junction of abdomen proper above and pelvic cavity below.

3 .UROGENITAL DIAPHRAGM : Present at the junction of greater pelvis above and perineum below.

4. DIAPHRAGMA ORIS : This is a muscle bulk formed by the myelohyoid muscle which bears the weight of the tongue.

5. DIAPHRAGMA SELLA : It covers the pituitary gland,present inside the middle cranial fossa.

View more
Ask a question Filters
  • Double-check the answer
    David Drayer answered · 6 days ago
This filter has no results, see all questions.
Question type

Use these controls to find questions to answer

Need double-checking
Practice problems
Conceptual questions