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Plasma#(55%)#, red blood cells#(45%)#, white blood cells#(1%)# and platelets#("present per microliter of blood")#.


Blood plasma contain following components;

  • Water #to# #90%#.
  • In organic or mineral ions #to# #0.9%#
  • Plasma proteins i.e antibodies, prothrombin,albumin and fibrinogin #to# #7-9%#
  • Organic nutrients i.e glucose, fats, amnio acids, phospholipids etc
  • Nitrogenous wastes i.e urea and uric acid #to# Small amount
  • Gases i.e #CO_2# and #O_2#.

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Red Blood Cells:
The cytoplasm of a red blood cell contain:

  • Haemoglobin #to# #95%#(for dry weight) and about #35%#(if water is counted).

  • Enzymes, salts and other proteins #to# #5%#

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White Blood Cells:
WBCs don't contain any pigment.These are much larger in size than red blood cells. They are grouped into
#color(blue)("granulocytes i.e neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils") # and #color(green)(" agranulocytes i.e monocytes and lymhphocytes".#

  • Monocytes and neutrophils #to# kill the invader microbes by damaging or digesting them by phagocytosis.

  • Basophils #to# produce heparin and histamine. Heparin inhibits clotting of blood. Histamine participates in allergic reactions.

  • Lymphocytes #to# provide immunity against disease.

  • Eosinophils #to# Inactivate inflammation producing subsances and attack parasites.

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Platelets also don't contain any pigment.

  • Platelets don't have nucleus thus can't fit in the definition of cells.

  • These are fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes.

  • Platelets prevent bleeding by making blood clot at the site of injury.
    These convert the soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin . The fibrin protein enmesh the red blood cells and other platelets in the area of damaged tissue and ultimately forms clot which act as a temporary seal to prevent bleeding.
    enter image source here


Orbicularis oris


Orbicularis oris muscle is located in area of mouth that surrounds the lips. It originates from maxilla(upper jaw) and mandible(lower jaw) and inserts into the skin that surrounds the lips.

Contraction of the muscle narrows orifice of mouth puckering the lip. It also helps in playing flute.


Hope it helps...


Leukocyte is just another name for white blood cells. On the other , lymphocytes are one of the types of white blood cells or leukocytes.


Leukocytes or white blood cells are divided into two groups on the basis of presences of granules in their cytoplasm.

  1. Granulocytes #to# neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils.
  2. Agranulocytes #to# monocytes and lymphocytes.

So, lymphocytes are one of the five types of WBCs and belong to granular leukocytes.
Lymphocytes mainly constitute T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Their most salient role is in immune system.

Thus we can say: All lymphocytes are leukocytes but all leukocytes are not lymphocytes.

are the T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Hope it helps...


Open-heart surgery is any type of surgery where the chest is cut open and surgery is performed on the muscles, valves, or arteries of the heart.


Yes, doctors temporarily stop the heart to perform surgery on it. They place the patient on a heart-lung bypass machine, to stop the blood from flowing to the heart. This automatically stops pumping action of heart muscles.

How is open-heart surgery performed?

  1. The patient is given general anesthesia. This will make sure the patient is asleep and pain-free.

  2. The surgeon makes an 8- to 10-inch cut in the chest.

  3. The surgeon cuts through all or part of the patient’s breastbone to expose the heart.

  4. Once the heart is visible, the patient may be connected to a heart-lung bypass machine. The machine moves blood away from the heart so that the surgeon can operate.

  5. The surgeon performs the required procedure like attaching a graft vessel to bypass a blocked artery in heart wall, or replacing a heart valve, etc.

  6. The surgeon allows blood to flow back in heart after the procedure; closes the breastbone with wire.

  7. The cut is stitched up.

What are some of the risks to open heart surgery?

There are a lot of risks in a open heart surgery. Making it one of the most deadliest surgerys to perform.

Some common risks are,

  • Heart Attack/ Stroke
  • Chest Pain or low fever
  • Chest wound infection



There are total #11# systems in human body containing their specific organs hence are called as organ systems.


These are muscular system, digestive system, integumentary system, skeletal system, circulatory system, respiratory system, lymphatic system, endocrine system, excretory system and reproductive system. All these systems contain their specific organs. However, these systems are somehow related to each other.

Breif concept to their functions is as follows:

Muscular system #to# provide movements.

The muscular system, in vertebrates, is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles, like cardiac muscle & muscles in stomach walls, can be completely autonomous. And others like, skeletal muscles are under conscious control.

Muscles run throughout the human body. Each muscle has a specific name according to it's location or function. All these muscles work and render human body to function normally. For example, when you want to play flute you have to pucker your lips, you can do so with the help of Orbicularis oris, a muscle surrounding the lips.

Digestive system #to# breakdown the food and absorb nutrients from it.

Food we eat is the body's source of fuel. Nutrients in food give the body's cells the energy they need to operate. Before food can be used it has to be broken down into tiny little pieces so it can be absorbed and used by the body. In humans, proteins need to be broken down into amino acids, starches into sugars, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The whole process of digestion is aided by chemical and nervous coordination.
https://www.pinterest.com/search/pins/?q=The%20Digestive%20system I

Integumentary system #to# act as a barrier, protect the inner stuff of body, regulate body temperature and also eliminate waste(e.g sweat).

The outermost layer of skin i.e epidermis is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out.

And the layer that lies below epidermis i.e dermis performs major functions and also nourishes epidermis. It contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscle, glands and lymphatic tissue. It paly major role in thermoregulation.

The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves.

Skeletal system #to# supports the body and protect the internal organs(e.g rib cage protect heart and lungs).

Muscular and skeletal system works together to provide movements. Besides, skeletal system provide proper shape to our body. Without this system, human body can never be so organized as it is.

Circulatory system #to# help to transfer blood, nutrients, hormones, oxygen and other gases to and from different body parts.

The circulatory system is extremely important in sustaining life. It’s proper functioning is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide, waste products, maintenance of optimum pH, and the mobility of the elements, proteins and cells, of the lymphatic system.

Heart pumps the blood throughout the body i.e from head to toe. #color(blue)"Veins"#(except pulmonary veins) carry the oxygen poor blood from different organs and give it to the heart. Heart oxygenates that blood. Then #color(red)" arteries"#(except pulmonary arteries) supply the oxygenated blood to various organs of the body. So it means that blood travels from different chambers of the heart all the time. Muscular system is also involved in this circulation if blood. The autonomous cardiac muscles relax and contract to help the heart in pumping blood.
Respiratory system #to# station of gaseous exchange i.e #O_2# in and #CO_2# out of the body.

The respiratory tract is the path of air that starts from the nasal cavity and end in smaller alveoli in lungs. It's major role is in breathing, no doubt an inevitable process. Besides, respiratory system also regulates blood #pH# and control body temperature.

Nervous system #to# help all the body parts to communicate with each other via electrical and chemical impulses.

Nervous system is involved in Nervous coordination . Nervous system is divided into central nervous system(CNS) & peripheral nervous system(PNS). CNS represents the largest part of the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord, Together, with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), it has a fundamental role in the control of behaviour.

Nervous system communicate with several other body systems. For example: Even when we haven't started eating, our brain starts telling our digestive organs i.e pancreas and stomach via nerves about the expected entry of food. And pancreas stimulated by neural signals produce about #20%# of it's total secretion because of this stimulus. Skeletal muscles also need neural inputs to start contraction.

Lymphatic system #to# It plays a vital role in natural defense of body against infections.

The lymphatic system helps Defend the body against foreign invaders. It destroys the bacteria and viruses through lymphocyte and macrophages with present within lymph nodes. Lymphatic system is involved in absorption of fat globules which are released by interstitial cells and the products of digestion of fats are absorbed.

Spleen filters the blood. It destroys aged red blood cells and foreign particles from blood via it's lymphocytes & macrophages.

Endocrine system #to# It also help different body parts to communicate by secreting chemical substances called hormones.

Endocrine system is involved in Chemical coordination. It constitutes #20# endocrine glands/tissues. These glands secrete hormone which are poured in bloodstream. From blood these are transported to the target tissues where they perform their particular work. For example: When the sugar level in blood drops then pancreas(an endocrine gland) secrete glucagon which works to increases glucose in blood.
Endocrine system is involved in controlling growth, metabolism, sexual development, maintaining homeostasis etc...

Endocrine and nervous system work together and aid other organ systems to perform their functions.

Excretory system #to# help body to get rid of wastes.

Excretion is the process of eliminating, from an organism, waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. The most salient organs of this system are kidneys. Kidneys with the help of their functional units i.e nephrons, maintains an appropriate fluid volume by regulating the amount of water that is excreted in the urine, regulate concentrations of various electrolytes in the body fluids, maintain normal #pH #of the blood and maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis) for optimal cell and tissue metabolism. They do this by separating urea, mineral salts, toxins, and other waste products from the blood. They also do the job of conserving water, salts, and electrolytes. At least one kidney must function properly for life to be maintained.


Reproductive system #to# aid in the production of new individual.

All living things reproduce. This is something that sets the living apart from non-living. Even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, it is not that essential for keeping an individual alive.

As in case of sexual reproduction, the specific traits are inherited from parents to their offspring. So, in this case reproduction is important in conservation of certain genetic makeups. While if we talk about asexual reproduction then its merely involved in producing new individual. Because there is no exchange of genetical materials in asexual reproduction.

Hope it helps!


On average, the human skin regenerates itself about every three weeks,


New skin cells (keratinocytes) are continually forming at the bottom of the epidermis.

As new cells form, they push the more mature cells toward the skin's surface, moving them farther away from the blood supply that keeps them alive.


By the time a skin cell reaches the surface about three weeks later, it's dead.

Thus, the skin on your body consists of about 30 layers of flattened, dead keratinocytes.

Friction gradually removes the dead cells from the skin surface.

The epidermis can be about 3 mm thick in the palms of a manual labourer, while in the eyelids the thickness is only 0.05 mm.

Thus, skin cell replacement is faster in the thinner regions of the epidermis.

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