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No. Enzymes are not consumed in the reaction.


Thus you have to know about the properties of catalysts. Here you go.

  1. Catalysts change the rate of the reaction(+ve catalyst speeds up and -ve catalyst speeds down)
  2. They never initiate any reaction.They only alter the rate of reaction which is already occurring at a particular rate.
  3. They never alter the equilibrium state in a reversible reaction but speeds up the reactants to attain equilibrium state faster.
  4. They are specific in its action and they are needed in very small amounts


Enzymes help the substrates convert into products quickly. Once the products are formed, they will say Goodbye to the enzyme. And the enzyme is unaltered and can be reused again.



They make glucose (simple monosaccharide sugar) and a waste product (oxygen).


During photosynthesis, autotrophic green plants use carbon dioxide and water, along with energy from sunlight (trapping specific wavelengths in chlorophyll) and their chlorophyll to synthesise glucose and oxygen. This process can be illustrated through the following chemical and word equations:


carbon dioxide + water + energy #-># glucose + oxygen

Glucose is then transported from the leaves to the rest of the plant as required by phloem in the vascular transport system of the plant.


Sexual=a lot of diversity. Asexual=little/no diversity.


In sexual reproduction, 2 parents share 50% of their DNA with each other and effectively produce offspring with a genome that is 50% the father's and 50% the mother's.

Multiple ways genetic diversity can result from sexual reproduction is in crossing over (stage in meiosis where homologous pairs of chromosomes exchange information with each other), independent assortment (where sister chromatids from chromosomes have different possibilities of ending up in certain gametes), and random fertilization (where only 1 male gamete out of many can fertilize a female gamete, both of which have independent assortments of sister chromatids). Here are pictures of those processes:




*Each sperm cell in this image contains a different assortment of sister chromatids.

Now, for the asexual reproduction part.

In asexual reproduction, the organism is essentially cloning itself. That being said, its offspring will thus be genetic clones of the parent (no diversity).

However, mutations can occur which are the leading cause for genetic diversity in asexual reproduction.


The frequency of crossing over is proportionate to the distance between linked genes.
When linked genes are far apart on the same chromosome, the frequency of crossing over increases.


Genes on the same chromosome are "linked."

It would be expected that linked genes would be inherited together because the gamete gets each chromosome as an entire piece.

But that is not what happens.

Instead, during meiosis, small sections of homologous chromosome might switch places with each other, each ending up on the other chromosome.

This is called "crossing over."

Crossing over separates two linked genes more often if the genes are far apart from each other.

But if two linked genes are close to each other, the chance is less that any break will randomly happen right between them and separate them.

Here is an image of the relative frequency of crossing over

enter image source here

Linkage and crossing over frequency were greatly important in gene mapping.

Geneticists were able to map the location of genes by how often they cross over. The more often, the further apart any two linked genes must be.

Here's a Khan Academy video that you can view to see more information about linkage, crossing over, and gene mapping:


The glucose that plants get is from photosynthesis, and not from consuming any food such as animals do.
This is how they're different as the glucose used then in respiration is sourced differently.


  • First it is good to note that respiration is not the same as breathing, and all living cells do it.
  • Second note, when I say eating I mean ONLY animals, not predatory plants (e.g. venus fly traps) as they photosynthesize too, but they live in areas where there is poor or near no nutrition in the soil, which is why they supplement this via digesting organisms that they trap.

Respiration is the way an organism releases energy from its food, goes like this;
oxygen + glucose -> carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
This is how organisms respire, in animals, they eat and digest the food to get glucose to use in respiration, whereas plants instead photosynthesize to get their glucose;
carbon dioxide + water (+ light energy) -> glucose + oxygen

Plant cells, as it is commonly mistaken, also use oxygen to produce carbon dioxide in respiration, however, photosynthesis produces more oxygen than carbon dioxide in respiration (luckily for us).

This is why respiration is different in plants than in animals.
Plants photosynthesize for glucose in respiration.
Animals consume for glucose in respiration.

Hope this helps.



Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, though I'd say the example of biome in this case would most definitely be found in North America due to the inclusion of premises in your question, that being the organisms described.


This sort of woodland stretches across large areas of Americas,, with a mix of coniferous (trees such as pine) and deciduous (trees such as oak or maple), these are one of the most staple biomes of woodland found in temperate areas across the globe, being able to sustain a wide range of biodiversity due to the prevalence of being constant temperature of at least 3 to 15 °C and damp, most of the year round.

However, during the autumnal and wintry seasons, the deciduous trees go into a dormancy (that being hibernation in summary) due to the reduction in sunlight in their respective hemisphere at those times of year, shedding their leaves to not waste energy trying to photosynthesis in the lower light and temperatures.

Hope this helps.


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