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Red algae is mostly likely to be found in deep water.


Red algae is mostly likely to be found in deep water. This has to do with the different wavelengths of light and how deep they can penetrate water. Red light has the longest wavelength of the visible spectrum which means it penetrates water the least.

Anything red appears red because it reflects this wavelength. Thus, in deep water, red algae (and anything else that is red) appears black and is more difficult to see, making it harder for potential predators.

A relatively recent report on the deep water algae near Puerto Rico found that 60% of the algae are red, 29% green, and 11% are brown.

To learn more, there is a very good NOAA article written on why many deepwater creatures are red that can be found here.

You may also be interested in this related Socratic question, why can red algae live in deeper water than green algae?


Carbon and oxygen atoms are rearranged to form carbon dioxide in aerobic respiration.


If you look at the formula for cellular respiration (aka aerobic respiration)

#C_6H_12O_6 + 6 O_2 -> 6 CO_2 + 6 H_2O #

We see there are 6 carbons and 6 oxygen in glucose. On the other side of the equation we see there is carbon dioxide and water.

The 6 carbon and oxygen from the glucose are slowly removed thought the process of glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate acid, and Krebs cycle in the form of carbon dioxide.

Water is not made until the electron transport chain. Glucose does not enter the electron transport chain, so most likely none of the oxygen in the water is taken from the glucose.



Before mRNA passes through pores in the nuclear membrane, it must undergo processing.


Messenger RNA, or mRNA, leaves the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane. These pores control the passage of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Before the mRNA arrives in the cytoplasm, however, it must be processed. mRNA processing occurs only in eukaryotes.

During mRNA processing, the introns (non-coding regions) of the pre-mRNA are removed, and the exons (the coding regions) are spliced together.

Additionally, a 5' cap and a 3' poly A tail are added to the pre-mRNA. The 5' cap prevents the mRNA from being degraded, while the poly A tail (a chain of adenine nucleotides) increases the stability of the molecule.



Nature selects the traits that give an organism an advantage over others. These traits are found in many other organisms. What they evolved from differs, but their mutations remain the same/similar.


There are two factors that allows an organisms to evolve and live. They are:

  1. Random mutations.
  2. The role of the environment.

The first factor, random mutations, have no specific role in answering your question. What matters is the second factor.

Now, as we all know, these mutations cannot help an organism unless there is some sort of requirement that ultimately leads to the organism gaining an advantage.

This is evident in all occasions. Normally, an organism will mutate and gain a certain trait. If this trait is beneficial, the organism will survive and pass this trait. Other organisms are susceptible to gaining this trait but nature selects for or against these traits for the organism.

This can be found (for example) between dolphins and sharks. They are very different from each other, but they all gain a certain characteristic that gives them an advantage over other animals (keep in mind these animals gain advantages over their predators).


A common characteristic in this case, would be a their stream-lined body for speed.


Like I said before, these animals are very different from each other, but they evolved to have similar characteristics in order to maximize efficiency when hunting. This is only one of the many examples of morphological interactions.

Hope this helps :)


Plants - cell wall forms.
Animals - cleavage furrow forms.


Cytokinesis occurs in mitosis and meiosis for both plant and animal cells. The ultimate objective is to divide the parent cell into daughter cells.

In plants , this occurs when a cell wall forms in between the daughter cells.



In animals , this occurs when a cleavage furrow forms. This pinches the cell in half.


Leaving Bio

Hope this helps :)


Thymidine is a nucleoSIDE.

Thymidine monophosphate is a nucleoTIDE. It is also called thymidylic acid. It is a component of DNA.


Here is thymidine

It consists of a nitrogenous base (pyrimidine) and a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose). Together, they make up a nucleoSIDE .



Here is thymidine monophosphate

It consists of a nitrogenous base (pyrimidine), 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose), and a phosphate group (monophosphate/1 phosphate). Together, they make up a nucleoTIDE .

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