1. Introduction to Biology

    1. Foundation of Biology
    2. Miller–Urey Experiment
    3. Classification and Domains of Life
    4. Hierarchy of Life (Levels of Organization)
    5. The Characteristics of Living Things
    6. Three Domains of Life
  2. Molecular Biology Basics

    1. Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and Matter
    2. Organic Molecules vs Inorganic Molecules
    3. Water and Life
    4. Monomers and Polymers
    5. Proteins
    6. Carbohydrates
    7. Lipids
    8. Nucleic Acids
  3. Cell Structure and Function

    1. The Cell Theory
    2. Microscopic Nature of Cells
    3. Surface Area to Volume Ratio
    4. Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic
    5. Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells
    6. Cytoskeleton

  4. Movement In and Out of Cells

    1. Cell Membrane
    2. Transport Across the Cell Membranes
    3. Diffusion
    4. Water Potential
    5. Osmosis
    6. Active Transport
    7. Endocytosis and Exocytosis
    8. Cell Communication
    9. Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death
  5. Energy in Cells

    1. Bioenergetics
    2. Gibbs Free Energy
    3. Physical Energy vs Chemical Energy
    4. Energy Transformation
    5. Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs
    6. Role of ATP
    7. Coupled Reactions
    8. Energy in Metabolic Pathways
  6. Enzymes

    1. Enzymes Overview
    2. Factors that Affect Enzyme Activity
    3. Inhibitors (Competitive and Non-Competitive)

  7. Energy In Organisms

    1. Aerobic Respiration
    2. Fermentation / Anaerobic Respiration
    3. Photosynthesis
  8. DNA Structure and Function

    1. DNA, Chromosomes and Genes
    2. Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin
    3. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
    4. Meselson-Stahl Experiment
    5. DNA Replication
    6. Transcription / RNA Synthesis
    7. Translation / Protein Synthesis
  9. Signal Transduction and Control of Gene Expression

    1. Signal Transduction Pathways
    2. Regulatory DNA / RNA / RNAi
    3. Promoters / Operators
    4. Lac Operon

  10. Genetic Engineering

    1. Extracting DNA from Cells
    2. DNA / RNA Probes
    3. Restriction Enzymes
    4. Bacterial Transformation
    5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    6. DNA Sequencing
    7. DNA Databases
    8. DNA Profiling
    9. Gel Electrophoresis
    10. Western Blot
    11. Protein purification methods
    12. ELISA / Immunoassays
  11. The Eukaryotic Cell

    1. Cell Cycle Overview
    2. Mitosis
    3. Meiosis
    4. Binary Fission
    5. Regulation of the Cell Cycle
    6. Cancer
  12. Genetics & Inheritance

    1. Genetics Overview
    2. Mendelian Genetics
    3. Genotypes & Phenotypes
    4. Punnett Squares
    5. Probability in Genetics
    6. Genotype Expression
    7. Epigenetics
    8. Hardy-Weinberg Equation
    9. Chromosomal Genetics
    10. Linked Genes
    11. X Inactivation

  13. Origin of Life on Earth

    1. History of Life on Earth
    2. The Fossil Record
    3. Radioactive Carbon Dating
    4. Endosymbiosis
    5. Abiogenesis
    6. The Importance of Oxygen
    7. Culturing Cells
    8. Altering Cell Metabolism
  14. Evolution

    1. Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
    2. Alfred Russell Wallace
    3. The Effect of Abiotic and Biotic Factors
    4. Evolution of Resistant Bacteria
    5. Genetic Drift
    6. Migration / Gene Flow
    7. Stickleback Evolution
    8. Coevolution
    9. Microevolution
  15. The Role of DNA in Evolution

    1. Universal Presence of DNA
    2. Mutations
    3. Protein sequence comparisons
    4. Comparative Genomics

  16. Natural Selection

    1. Natural Selection Overview
    2. Sources of Variation
    3. Importance of Variation for a Species
    4. Speciation
    5. Aposomatic Coloration
    6. r/K Selection Theory
  17. Taxonomy and Systematics

    1. Taxonomy
    2. Phylogenetic Trees
    3. Cladistics
    4. Molecular Clocks
  18. Microorganisms

    1. Archaea
    2. Bacteria
    3. Viruses
    4. Viral Replication
    5. Protists

  19. Plants

    1. Plants Overview
    2. Survival on Land
    3. Seeds vs. Seedless Plants
    4. Plant Defense
    5. Plant Control / Hormones
    6. Plant Nutrition & Transport
    7. Plant Structure / Angiosperm vs. Gymnosperm
    8. Finding Stomata
  20. Fungi

    1. Fungi Overview
    2. Role of Fungi in Ecosystem
    3. Humans and Fungi
  21. Animals

    1. Animals Overview
    2. Animal Classification
    3. Endotherm vs. Ectotherm
    4. Eukarya
    5. Animal Behavior
    6. Animal Defense
    7. Invertebrates vs. Vertebrates

  22. Coordination and Control

    1. Nerves and Hormones
    2. Stimulus-Response Model
    3. The Five Senses
    4. Reflex Response
    5. Negative Feedback
    6. Temperature Control in Humans
  23. Structure and Motion

    1. Muscles and Motion
    2. Bones and Support
  24. Input and Output

    1. The Need for Exchange in Organisms
    2. Characteristics of Good Exchange Surfaces
    3. Blood Capillaries vs. Lymph Capillaries
    4. Alveoli in the Lungs
    5. Villi in the Small Intestine
    6. Nephrons in the Kidneys

  25. Reproduction & Development

    1. Asexual Reproduction
    2. Sexual Reproduction
    3. Haploid vs Diploid
    4. Embryogenesis
    5. Human Embryonic and Fetal Development
    6. HOX genes
    7. Animal Development / Embryology
  26. Immunity

    1. Innate vs. Acquired Immunity
    2. Effect of Public Health
  27. The Elements of an Ecosystem

    1. Ecosystems Overview
    2. Types of Biomes
    3. Species
    4. Populations and Communities
    5. Niche
    6. Abiotic and Biotic Factors
    7. The Role of Decomposers

  28. Energy in Ecosystems

    1. Efficiency of Producers and Consumers
    2. Productivity
    3. Energy Input and Output on Earth
    4. Community Food Chains
    5. Food Webs
  29. Change in Communities

    1. Carrying Capacity
    2. Opportunistic (r-Selected)
    3. Equilibrium (K-Selected)
    4. Types of Changes (Slow and Rapid)
    5. Logistic Growth
    6. The Importance of Biodiversity
    7. Biogeochemical Cycles
    8. Ecological Succession
  30. Human Impact on Ecosystems

    1. Human Practices that Change Ecosystems
    2. Species Extinctions Caused by Humans
    3. The Importance of Preserving Habitat
    4. Human Population Growth
    5. Human Demands on the Biosphere
    6. Invasive Species

  31. Bioethics

    1. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering
    2. Genetically Modified Foods
    3. Animals and Dissection
  32. Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems

    1. Hierarchical Structure
    2. Cellular Specialization
    3. Compartmentalization
    4. Homeostatic Evolution
    5. Interstitial Fluid
    6. Life Requires Free Energy