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Lytic Cycle :
Simply mean bursting or rupturing cycle , over and over again.


It is one of the cycles of a bacteriophage (virus) in which their is a master-slave relationship between the bacteriophage (master) and bacteria (slave).

Following are the steps of lytic cycle..

1) Attachment:
In this step, the bacteriophage, attaches itself by it's tail to the
cell wall
of bacterium (plural-bacteria).

2) Digestion:
In this step, the bacteriophage contains an enzyme called
lysozyme, which digest the cell wall of bacterium (plural-
Thus an opening is formed in the bacterial cell wall.

3) Injection:
The bacteriophage contracts and injects it's DNA through the
opening, inside the host (bacterium), while the protein coat and
tail remain outside.

4) Taking Control:
Inside bacterial cell, the bacteriophage DNA takes over the
biosynthetic machinery of the host
(bacterium), to synthesize it's
own DNA and protein molecule.

5) Multiplication:
The bacteriophage multiplies and increases it's number,hence
form a lot of daughter bacteriophages , the daughter
bacteriophages exert pressure on the cell wall of

6) Rupturing:
Finally, the bacterial cell ruptures ( lysis occurs) due to all that pressure caused by daughter bacteriophages and release the
daughter bacteriophages out, which are now ready to attack a new
bacteria and start their lytic cycle, all over again.
enter image source here

For more information watch this..

Hope This Helps ^_^


Linked genes are on the same chromosome.


Some genes are "linked" to each other because you inherit them together.
Inherit one, inherit the other.

You inherit them together because they are on the same chromosome, and when the gametes are formed by meiosis, they receive the entire chromosome from the original cell.

However, it turns out that when the chromosome pairs line up during meiosis, they often swap whole sections.

This swapping is called "crossing over," which disrupts the linkage between genes by "unlinking" them.

Here's an image showing crossing over

enter image source here

After a section of the chromosome crosses over to the homologous chromosome, the genes at the end are no longer linked with the genes on the rest of the chromosome.

Crossing over lets us map the location of genes on their chromosomes by finding the sequence of genes along the length of a chromosome.

The further apart the linked genes are on the chromosome, the more likely it is that a break will occur in between them.

But when two linked genes are close to each other, it is less likely that a random break will happen between them.

So by studying the frequency of crossing over between pairs of linked genes, scientists were able to determine if they were close or distant. The more common the crossing over, the more distant they are on the chromosome.

Here is an image of that idea
enter image source here


See Below


There are a lot of parts and pieces involved in the electron transport chain, but with respect to Oxygen, the simple answer is Oxygen is the place where the electrons go, it i sthe thing that gets reduced.

I'm not going to link to all the membranes and chemical reactions, but rather just refer to something simple like a carbon in a typical fat.
#-CH_2-# this is what a carbon in a fat looks like (in general).
As that carbon sits now, it has a ~ -2 oxidation state.

When you exhale that carbon as #CO_2# (after cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, etc), the C has a +4 oxidation state.

That means for the Carbon:
#C^-2 = C^"+4" + 6e^-#
Those 6 electrons have to go somewhere. And they go onto Oxygen!
You breath in elemental #O_2# with a zero oxidation number. That carbon above turns into a #CO_2# and basically 1 water, #H_2O#
So that Carbon needs to get rid of 6 electrons...and in #CO_2#, each Oxygen has a -2 oxidation state (from zero to -2), and the water oxygen has a -2 oxidation state (from zero to -2). So when that Carbon in the fat gets oxidized and you breath it out as #CO_2#.
The place were those 6 electrons went is onto the #O_2# that you breathed in (and breathed out as #CO_2# and maybe some water (simplistically speaking)


Either of your parents can have any blood type except AB as long as they are heterozygous for type A or B.


For your blood type to be O, you had to have inherited on O gene from each parent.

That means that either parent could be
AO (but not AA) -- blood type A

BO (but not BB) -- blood type B

OO -- blood type O

If either one of your parents had blood type AA, that parent would have automatically donated a gene for A blood to you, so your blood type could not be O.

The same is true if either one of your parents had blood genotype BB. You would automatically received one gene for type B, so your blood type could not be O.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

However, AA is not the only way to end up with type A blood, and BB is not the only genotype for type B blood.

A parent who is blood type A might have the genotype AO.
One half of the offspring of this parent will get a gene for type O.

A parent who has blood type B might have the genotype BO.
One half of this parent's offspring will get a gene for O.

A parent whose blood type is O has a genotype of OO, so all this parent's offspring will get a gene for O.


Cells with the full set of chromosomes are #"diploid somatic cells."#


Somatic cells are the cells that make up the vast majority of the body.

Somatic cells each have the complete set of chromosomes.

In humans, that means that the somatic cells have #46# chromosomes each #-# #23# pairs, one set of #23# from each parent, for a total of #46.#

In order to maintain the correct number of chromosomes when the egg cell and sperm cell combine, the chromosome number in the gametes is cut in half during #"meiosis"# (the "reduction" division.)

Somatic cells, with the full set of chromosomes are #diploid,"# with the #2n# chromosome number.

Gametes, with one half the full number of chromosomes, are #"haploid,"# with the #1n# chromosome number.

During fertilization, the somatic cells' #2n  "diploid"# chromosome number is restored when both of the #1n  "haploid"# gametes fuse with each other.

Here's an image of this process:
The #"diploid"# #(2n)# cells are #"somatic"# cells. and the #"haploid"  (1n)# cells are the gametes.

enter image source here

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