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Breathing is an inhalation and exhalation process.


As we inhale the air, through nose or mouth ( mostly through nose), it goes through a lot of processes, like warming by blood capillaries , moisturizing by mucus membrane and removal of dust. . and from here on, it goes through pharanyx, larynx(Voice Box), trachea, bronchi, bronchi-oles and then alveolies. and yeah in lungs, the layers of cells lining the alveoli and the surrounding capillaries are each only one cell thick and are in very close contact with each other.

This barrier between air and blood averages about 1 micron (1/10,000 of a centimeter, or 0.000039 inch)* in thickness.

Oxygen passes quickly through this air-blood barrier into the blood in the capillaries. Similarly, carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli and is then exhaled.

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See below.


If the two groups are geographically isolated from each other, even if they have equal environmental conditions, then the two populations would become more and more different from each other over time. This is because geographic isolation would prevent the two populations from mingling and interbreeding, which would result in the creation of two separate gene pools for each population (rather than just one for the two combined populations).

I hope that helps!


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) is involved in the production of Lipids, steroids and phospholipids.


smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the type of an endoplasmic reticulum which does not bear ribosome on their surface. It is associated with glycogenolysis.

It is responsible for the synthesis and repair of the membrane by providing lipids and phospholipids. SER is also known to synthesize steroids. It also plays a role in detoxification in the liver.



Kingdom fungi also known as Kingdom of recyclers.


This kingdom constitutes about #100,000# species of organisms called fungi. Many more are estimated to be present. All the fungi are eukaryotes , absorptive heterotrophs (obtain their food by direct absorption from the immediate environment) and non-motile .
Some examples of fungi are mushrooms, morels, truffles, yeast etc...

Hope it helps!


They have adapted to long periods without rain, to the dry heat of the savannas and to the long distances without water and little or no tree cover.


Most organisms in a savanna habitat have adapted to cope with the little moisture found in such a habitat. This has lead to most evolving energy saving methods such as having a 'high' stamina or only being active or more active when it is cool or night time in the case of many animals in the savanna. For plants, most have adapted to the arid conditions, and have developed underground stores of starches, or have decreased their surface area in water loss by growing small 'needle like' leaves.

Many plants which are present also have a feature of sorts which makes them that little harder for a herbivore to eat, such as the acacia tree has thorny branches, leaves and is tall, which help to deter herbivores- all but those like the Giraffe, which has evolved a long neck to reach these leaves and branches, as well as a long, thick tongue which is near 'impervious' to the spiny foliage.

Other animals which have adapted to the heat, include the Elephants, which have wrinkly skin, and large ears, to increase their surface area and more easily dissipate heat. They also have learnt to use mud as a way to cool down and protect their skin from the sun, as well as biting pests.
Other animals sleep or rest during the day, whether that be below ground like meerkats do or under a tree like prides of lions do.

Many herbivores like gazelles, zebras and wildebeests have adapted to be able to go long distances without little water and to be able to run quickly cross the savanna from potential predators, though not the stamina as such to keep these up for long distances, in which the african painted wild dog excels at, being able to chase its prey until it eventually collapses of exhaustion, much like how Human tribes do in Africa.

I could keep going, but I feel this may be sufficient information for your question.

Hope this helps


Well, I would say that the bacterial cell would expand and eventually burst.


In a hypotonic solution, the cell's solute concentration is higher than that of the solution, and therefore its water concentration would be lower than that of the solution.

Osmosis states that water molecules tend to diffuse down a concentration gradient through a partially permeable membrane. So in this case, water molecules will enter the cell instead, and thus causing it to expand. If too much water enters the cell, then the cell will burst.

As an extra, the bacterial's cell wall helps it prevent from too much water entering in, which helps in preventing it from rupturing, but since there is penicillin inside the solution, it weakens the cell wall, and the bacteria therefore can still burst.

Here is a picture to help you visualize:


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