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A cell loses it's #H_2O# molecules when it is placed in hypertonic solution.


Hypertonic solution is the one which contain more concentration of solutes as compared to the concentration of solutes in cytoplasm of cell. Which means that a solution contains less water as compared to the water within the cell.

So, When cell is placed in this kind of solution then water#(H_2O)# molecules move from their higher concentration to their lower concentration i.e from cell to hypertonic solution. This movement of water molecule is called osmosis and it is due to the fact that everything in the universe tends to attain equilibrium(balance). Water molecules also try to balance their concentration in both environments(extracellular & intracellular). Thus, cell gives its water to the solution in which it has been placed. Hence, it loses water and gets shrunk.

The image below manifests: what happens to red blood cells when it's placed in hypertonic solution?

Hope it helps!


Mendel's Law of Independent assortment is a law stating that allele pairs separate independently during gametes formation.


Detailed explanation:

  • The law is only true for traits that are not linked ( seed color vs. seed shape).
  • When two or more characteristics are inherited by an individual, those characteristics assort independently during gamete production.
  • This gives the various traits an equal opportunity of occurring together.
  • In other words: the inheritance of one trait will not affect the inheritance of another.

Law of Independent Assortment example:

  • Nucleoulus #to# sysnthesise ribosomes.

  • Ribosomes #to# synthesize proteins.

  • Rough Endoplasmic reticulum #to# having ribosomes on it's surface it's mainly involved in protein synthesis.

  • Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum #to# mainly involved in metabolism. Also play role in transport of material within the cell.
    For example: proteins synthesized on RER are transported to Golgi apparatus via SER.

  • Golgi Apparatus #to# gives final touch to cell secretions (proteins) before they are ready to get out of the cell.

  • Lysosomes #to# major role in phagocytosis i.e engulf #&# breakdown any foreign particles that enters the cell.

  • Vacuoles #to# vacuoles are predominantly involved in storage in both animal #&# plant cell. But in plant cell, a larger central vacuole is also a major contributor to the turgor that is salient for maintaining rigidity in younger parts of plant.

  • Peroxisomes #to# specifically involved in formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide#(H_2O_2)#.

  • Mitochondria #to# manufacture and supply energy#(ATP)# needed for all cellular activities.

  • Choloroplast #to# present in plants only. Help plants to photosynthesize their own food.

Hope it helps!


The animal would become stiff and rigid and would not be able to do all the necessary things it needs to do to survive, eg, run, eat, etc.


The function of the cell wall is to provide the cell with structure, giving the cell its shape and supports the cell making it stronger, having more protection. It is thick and built from cellulose. Below is a diagram of the cell wall:


Plant cells usually only have cell walls because of how they grow; in particular, towards sunlight. To provide the cell with the strength to support its weight, it has the cell wall.

Therefore if an animal cell had a cell wall, it would not be able to do all of its usual activities, for example, run, eat, or do any of the usual necessities as sufficient as possible, as having a cell wall in animal cell would make them stiff and not do any of these activities. They get strength from other areas such as the structure of bones, allowing the animal to stand up but can also move. Plant cells do not have bones and therefore get their strength from the cell wall.

For more information:



The transfer of the male gamete (pollen grains) to the female reproductive system to fertilize the egg is called pollination.
The pollen grain travels through stigma, style and ovary and then finally enters the ovule to fertilize the egg cell and form zygote.



Pollination is important for fertilization of the egg ofcourse, for the plants to reproduce and produce their next generations.
Secondly, pollination provides seeds and fruits which are of benefit to us. (the ovule develops into a seed while the ovary into a fruit)

The types of mutations include:
Point Mutations

A point mutation is usually the least harmful of the types of DNA mutations. It is the change of a single nitrogen base in a DNA sequence. Depending on the placement of that nitrogen base in the codon, it can cause no effect to the protein.

Frame Shift Mutations

Frameshift mutations are much more serious and deadly than point mutations. Even though only one nitrogen base is affected just like in point mutations, this time the single base is either completely deleted or an extra one is inserted into the middle of a DNA sequence. This change in sequence causes the reading frame to shift, hence the

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