Intermolecular Bonds

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Identifying Intermolecular Forces - Real Chemistry

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Key Questions

  • Answer:

    They are dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonds, and London dispersion forces.

    Explanation:

    DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES

    Two nearby polar molecules arrange themselves so that the negative and positive ends line up. An attractive force holds the two molecules together

    2012books.lardbucket.org

    HYDROGEN BONDS

    The H atom in an O-H, N-H, or F-H bond has a partial positive charge. The N, O, or F atoms in a neighbouring molecule have a partial positive charge.

    The dipole-dipole attractions between these charges are hydrogen bonds. Water molecules have strong H-bonds.

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    LONDON DISPERSION FORCES

    At any given instant, there may be a greater electron density on one end of a nonpolar molecule than on the other. This instantaneous dipole can induce a dipole in a neighbouring molecule. This causes a weak attractive force called a London Dispersion Force.

    www.dlt.ncssm.edu

  • Intermolecular forces (from Latin inter, meaning between or among) are the forces of attraction or repulsion that act between neighboring atoms, molecules, or ions.

  • Intermolecular bonds are caused by the attractive forces between the negative end of one molecule and the positive end of another.

    DIPOLE-DIPOLE BONDS

    A polar molecule has a positive end and a negative end. When two polar molecules are near each other, they arrange themselves so that the negative and positive ends line up and attract the two molecules together

    2012books.lardbucket.org

    HYDROGEN BONDS

    A hydrogen bond is the dipole-dipole attraction between the positive ends (the H atoms) of the O-H, N-H, and F-H bonds in one molecule and the negative ends (the N, O, or F atoms) in a neighbouring molecule.

    In liquid water, for example, every water molecule can be H-bonded to four other water molecules.

    figures.boundless.com

    There are other, weaker, attractive forces, but dipole-dipole attractions are the strongest attractions among covalent molecules.

Questions

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