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This is a disjunction:

Geometry is fun #" "# or #" "# ducks do not like water.


This is a disjunction of two clauses: "geometry is fun" and "ducks do not like water". The central connective word is "or".

It is approximately logically equivalent to the conditional statement:

If ducks like water then geometry is fun.

We can break it down into parts as follows:

  • Let #G# be the statement "geometry is fun".

  • Let #D# be the statement "ducks like water".

Then the given statement can be represented symbolically as:

#G vv not D" "# "G or not D"

The statement "If ducks like water then geometry is fun." would be represented as:

#D -> G" "# "D implies G"

These two statements are equivalent in Boolean logic.

We can draw a Venn diagram looking like this:

enter image source here

The left hand circle represents the proposition "geometry is fun" and the right hand circle the proposition "ducks like water".

The shaded region corresponds to both the statements:

#G vv not D" "# "Geometry is fun or ducks do not like water."

#D -> G" "# "If ducks like water then geometry is fun."

However, I think that it is important to note that natural language and meaning are more subtle than Boolean logic. So it would be inaccurate to classify the given statement as a conditional.


"perfect" (with respect to verbs) means that the verb action is complete or finished at the time of the remainder of the sentence.


Past Perfect
#color(white)("XXX")#The children had gone to bed before their father got home.

Present Perfect
#color(white)("XXX")#I have finished my supper; may I go and watch TV?

Future Perfect
#color(white)("XXX")#By the time our sun collapses, all life on earth will have ceased to exist.


"Whom" is not always used when it should be.


Who and Whom are Relative Pronouns , and pronouns have cases -- different versions, depending on how they are used.

" Who " is the nominative case, used as a subject or a predicate noun:

Who is he?
Is she who we think she is?

(The verb "to be" is a linking verb and NEVER takes an object, always a predicate noun or predicate adjective.)

" Whom " is the objective case, used whenever you need an object in a sentence -- Direct Object, Indirect Object, Object of Preposition:

Whom did you give it to? ("whom" is I.O., "it" is D.O.)

To whom is he speaking? ("whom" is I.O.)

They are the people from whom I received the gift. ("whom" is object of preposition "from"), ("gift" is D.O.)

You gave the present to WHOM? (incredulous) ("present" is D.O.; "whom" is I.O.)

In a sentence with both a direct and an indirect object,
you may give something (D.O.) to someone/thing/a pet (I.O.), or you may do something (D.O.) for someone (I.O.).

A couple more examples of nominative case pronouns versus objective case pronouns:

I gave the book to him/her. ("I" is nominative case; "him/her" are objective case.)

She/He gave the book to me. ("She/He" are nominative case; "me" is objective case.)

" Who " is also an Interrogative pronoun -- used to ask questions and can be singular or plural:

Who is he?
Who are they?

Here is a partial pronoun chart from the site http://www.learnbritishenglish.co.uk/english-pronouns-visual-chart/
that shows the different versions of the Personal Pronouns :

enter image source here

Here's an image from the Bogota Post that adds the Relative Pronouns "Who" and "Whom" in the last two columns:

enter image source here

Sorry if this is too long. Hope it's helpful.


In modern American English, "hanged" is only used when referring to death by hanging, whereas "hung" is used as the general past tense of "hang".


While some people still use both words interchangeably, a majority of modern grammar and style professionals insist that "hung" is the appropriate general past tense of "hang", whereas "hanged" is only used when referring to death by hanging (in either a murder or suicide sense).

A good way to remember this is using a short mnemonic device:
"Curtains are hung, but people are hanged."

I can't think of another example of a verb similar to this; most past-tense differences occur between British and American English (learnt vs. learned, for instance).


(see below)


You might try:

harmonie, the Middle English (e.g. Milton) spelling;
armonye, Chaucer's Old English version.

Neither of these could truly be considered unique however.

Perhaps you could use wharmony (with the "w" used as in "who") or harmoney (an incorrect spelling, but probably unique) or pymnea (with an explanation that it's some kind of non-phonetic, regional variation, pronounced as "harmony").

All of this (of course) raises the question of why you are trying to find a unique spelling. What purpose are you attempting to fulfill?


Chaucer should not be considered anti-feminist. He cast a realistic eye on the foibles of men and women of his day.


Chaucer notes the vanities, motivations, weaknesses and contradictions in the behaviour of the pilgrims. He also touches upon the faults in the society of his time. He saw human beings in all their fragility.
One should also note he was not calling for revolutionary change. At that period the Middle Ages, while undergoing change through increasing trade and education, had not evolved to the challenging spirit that came with the Renaissance.

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