siesmoreceptors can detect vibrational activity
Many animals communicate by producing Rayleigh waves (type of siesmic waves) on the substrate. This substrate can be anything including earth, spiders web, water surface, etc. Also it can be a mechanism of food detection as in spiders. They detect prey with the help of vibrations in the web created when an insect gets caught.
Elephants can detect seismic signals very well. They produce sounds with such high amplitudes that these can travel through the earth. These can be received by other elephants and as elephants have the largest cerebral cortex among all mammals, they can interpret these signals.
Many other animals also use seismic cues for different purposes. For more information, refer to this link.
We're asked to find the necessary work to accelerate an
The equation for work according to the work-energy theorem is given by
#ul(W = DeltaE_k = 1/2m(v_2)^2 - 1/2m(v_1)^2#
The final velocity is
#W = 1/2(8color(white)(l)"kg")(3color(white)(l)"m/s" - 0)^2 = color(red)(ul(36color(white)(l)"J"#
However, this does not include the work done to counteract the friction, so we have to use the equation
#ul(W = Fs#
The necessary force
#F = f_k = mu_kmg = (6)(8color(white)(l)"kg")(9.81color(white)(l)"m/s"^2) = 471# #"N"#
And so we have
#W = (471color(white)(l)"N")s#
The distance it travels
#W_"necessary" = color(blue)(ulbar(|stackrel(" ")(" "36color(white)(l)"J" + (471color(white)(l)"N")s" ")|)#
Well, it's always important to remember the definition of an adiabatic process:
#q = 0# ,
So, there is no heat flow in or out (the system is thermally insulated from the surroundings).
From the first law of thermodynamics:
#DeltaE = q + w = q - intPdV# where
#w# is the work from the perspective of the system and#DeltaE# is the change in internal energy.
For an adiabatic process, we then have
From the second law of thermodynamics:
#DeltaS >= q/T# where
#># corresponds to irreversible processes and#=# corresponds to reversible processes.
If there is absolutely no heat flow in or out, the system entropy should be constant, as long as the process is reversible. You can read more about reversible processes here.
No
First I'll explain about co-factors.
In the enzyme reactions many enzymes want a help from another group that isn't a protein.(non-proteins)
We call this group as the co-factor. It helps the enzyme in the enzyme reaction.
There are three main groups of co-factors.
1)Inorganic Ions
2)CoEnzymes
3)Prosthetic groups
Inorganic ions
This groups act as enzyme activators. Inorganic ions should bind to the allosteric site to activate the enzyme.
Many of inorganic ions are metal ions.
Ex:-
Co-Enzymes
These groups do not attach with the enzyme. These are organic molecules.
Co-enzymes can act with many enzymes. It means it is not specific to an enzyme.
If it released
then it changes into a different form.
And then it can help to another enzyme.
In that reaction the co-enzyme takes
Ex:- NAD,NADP,ATP,FAD
* *
Prosthetic groups
Prosthetic groups are non-proteins. But they may be inorgonic or orgonic groups.
They tightly bind to the enzyme and We can see a similar process as the above group, in the process of helping the enzyme by prosthetic groups.
But it does not get attached to the allosteric site. Normally it binds to the active site of the enzyme.
Ex:- an enzyme with a
Population dynamics
Population studies cover many issues, such as total population, population growth, population density, average (median) age, aged vs. young people, doubling time, crude birth rate, total fertility rate, crude death rate, age structure, etc.
The starting point in a population estimate (projection) is the current (today's) age structure and mortality data which could be taken fromlife tables. A life table is developed by applying a real population's age-specific death rates to hypothetical stable and stationary populations having 100,000 live births per year, evenly distributed through the year, with no migration. As the 100,000 people added each year aged, their ranks are thinned in accordance with the age-specific death rates.
Population studies provide details necessary for city planning, water supply, waste need to be collected, numbers of dwellings, roads, parking space, green areas (public parks), infrastructure, etc. By the way today's total (human) population is nearly 7,416,100,000 and we consume the resources and pollute the environment badly.
The ratio of the drift speeds is
Imagine a counter at both point A in the narrower wire and point B in the thicker wire. The counters are detecting and counting each electron as they pass in a 1 second period. The totals recorded by the 2 counters at the end of that second must be equal because the wires are in series, so the current thru both must be equal. And current is measured in Amps, which is equivalent to Coulombs/second.
Visualize the wire upstream from counters A and B just before the counters are started. The electrons that will be counted are in a cylinder in their individual wires. The formula for the volume of a cylinder is
Call those cylinders A and B and use the subscripts A and B to designate their volume, radii, and lengths. For comparison purposes, let
The volumes of them are
and
The 2 electrons that will be the last electron counted by counter A and B were a distance
We assume that the same metal is used for the 2 wires. That assumption is required for another fact that we need to use: The density of free electrons in the 2 cylinders is equal because both use the same metal (most likely copper). That fact, with the fact that the number of electrons counted by the 2 counters is equal, give us the ability to say that the volume of the 2 cylinders are equal.
Therefore
Cancelling where possible
yielding
Since in each cylinder, the 2 electrons that were last to be counted in their section of wire traveled the distance
I hope this helps,
Steve
We know that, if
Let,
Now, using
and,
Recall that, the Quadr. Fun., say,
Utilising,
Enjoy Maths.!
As far as I'm concerned, they're not really that important. But then again, I have no exposure to graduate-level concepts, and they may be useful there.
Nevertheless, for math nerds like me, they present some very interesting problems and manifest some very beautiful patterns. For instance, the continued (infinite) fraction:
Is very famous because it simplifies to
But check this out. This part in red:
Is really just equal to
See? It's just the same infinite repeating fraction, so we replace it with
Now we solve, through these steps:
The
which is the number
In fact, you can also express such math celebrities as
See a solution process below:
First, solve for two points as an equation instead of a inequality to find the boundary line for the inequality.
For
For
We can now graph the two points on the coordinate plane and draw a line through the points to mark the boundary of the inequality.
The boundary line will be solid because the inequality operator contains a "or equal to" clause.
graph{(y-1/5x-10)((x+10)^2+(y-8)^2-0.3)(x^2+(y-10)^2-0.3)=0 [-30, 30, -15, 15]}
To complete the chart of the inequality we shade the left side of the line:
graph{(y-1/5x-10)>=0 [-30, 30, -15, 15]}
We're asked to find the equilibrium concentrations of
The equilibrium constant expression is given by
#K_c = (["NO"_2]^2)/(["N"_2"O"_4]) = ul(0.36)" "# #(2000color(white)(l)""^"o""C")#
We'll do our I.C.E. chart in the form of bullet points, for fun. Then, our initial concentrations are
INITIAL
According to the coefficients of the reaction, the amount by which
CHANGE
And so the final concentrations are
FINAL
Plugging these into the equilibrium constant expression gives us
#K_c = ((1-2x)^2)/(x) = ul(0.36)" "# #(2000color(white)(l)""^"o""C"# , excluding units#)#
Now we solve for
#(4x^2 - 4x + 1)/x = 0.36#
#4x^2 - 4x + 1 = 0.36x#
#4x^2 - 4.36x + 1 = 0#
Use the quadratic equation:
#x = (4.36+-sqrt((4.36)^2 - 4(4)(1)))/(8) = 0.328color(white)(l)"or"color(white)(l)0.762#
If we plug the larger solution in for
#color(red)("final N"_2"O"_4) = x = color(red)(ulbar(|stackrel(" ")(" "0.33color(white)(l)M" ")|)#
#color(blue)("final NO"_2) = 1-2x = 1-2(0.328) = color(blue)(ulbar(|stackrel(" ")(" "0.34color(white)(l)M" ")|)# each rounded to
#2# significant figures.