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1

Answer:

See below :

Explanation:

  • The abiotic factors like temperature, soil, water ,atmospheric pressure, light, chemical components provide ideal living condition.
    -Let us discuss these factors one by one :
  • WATER: Water is called as Lifeblood of earth . It plays a crucial role in life of any organism . Like human body is consist of 75 % of water , with 90% of blood being water. Water helps in good functioning of digestive system , circulatory system etc. All the aquatic forms are totally dependent upon water.

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  • TEMPERATURE : Temperature is one of the major factor . All the organisms survive at a particular range of temperature or between the minimum and maximum range of temperature. Those organisms whose body temperature fluctuates with the surrounding temperature are called as Cold blooded organisms . Those organisms which can maintain their own body temperature are known as Warm blooded organisms. example: mammals.

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  • LIGHT: Light is the main source of energy. Because of light, plants make their food by process called as photosynthesis . Then. The plants are eaten by animals as food . The whole food chain is based upon plants ( means indirectly on the light ).

www.cloudfront. net The intensity of light also effects the skin colour, sensitivity, sight etc. Insects also use UV light to distinguish between flowers.

  • ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: All organisms can survive only at particular range of air pressure. When air pressure is low, especially in high altitudes some may find it difficult to breathe because of insufficient amount of oxygen present at height. So , air pressure matters a lot .

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- CHEMICAL COMPONENTS :C, H,N,O are the natural elements that constitutes about 97% of molecules of life. Out of 92 known elements, 25 elements are found on living organisms.

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- SOIL :As we know that plants are the main source of energy .and plants grow in soil so, soil is also a major abiotic component . The fertility of soil varies from place to place . Water has water retention capacity. So, the ground water is used by human beings in their daily life for various activities .

enter image source here

Thus , abiotic factors play a major role in life and animals depend on abiotic factors in many ways.

Hope this will help u......-

4

Answer:

Kingdom fungi also known as Kingdom of recyclers.

Explanation:

This kingdom constitutes about #100,000# species of organisms called fungi. Many more are estimated to be present. All the fungi are eukaryotes , absorptive heterotrophs (obtain their food by direct absorption from the immediate environment) and non-motile .
Some examples of fungi are mushrooms, morels, truffles, yeast etc...
http://www.kusemuseum-naturepreserve.org/Plants/PlantsOther/Fungi.htm

Hope it helps!

2

What is HIV?

BillytheKid
BillytheKid
Featured 5 days ago

Answer:

See below...

Explanation:

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

There are two variants: HIV-1 and HIV-2 . Both are ssRNA-RT Retroviruses. The RT indicates the use of Reverse Transcriptase.

HIV-1 is the more virulent (aggressive) form, and was the first discovered.

It is a rather recent virus: it only started to appear in the human population in the early 1980's.

Originally addressed as HTLV III (Human Tumor Lymphoid Virus Serotype 3) and/or LAV (Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus), it was later renamed to HIV. The name HTLV-III is now used for a different virus: Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 3 .

Every virus has a designated Host-cell : for the common cold viruses (there are 100+ of them!) it is the olfactory tissue ( the tissue behind your nose that you smell with).

For the HIV -viruses the hosts are cells in the Immune system, mainly T-cells, Dendritic cells (located in skin, but present in the blood in immature form) and Macrophages.

In the early 80's the infection spread primarily within gay communities. It was therefore originally labeled GRID: Gay-Related Immuno Deficiency.

But gradually it transpired that the virus was not gender-specific (thus not exclusively male-related).

As HIV attacks cells in the immune system, the affliction was renamed to Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome , in short: AIDS.

In the early days it was noted that a high percentage of infected patients showed a whole range of symptoms, most notably amongst them a type of tumor called Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) .

However, it was later proven that HIV itself doesn't/can't cause KS, but instead this was caused by a different virus: Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). This virus is, like HIV itself, sexually transmitted, and AIDS sufferers have a far higher chance of infection with KSHV then other patients.

As quite a few other afflictions ride piggyback on an infection with HIV, but are NOT caused by the HIV-virus itself, these afflictions are commonly addressed as ARC : Aids-Related Complex.

HIV in action:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV

Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.

For more info about Tumor virology, may I suggest this interesting article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501656/

1

The information provided tells us that the ricin binds to the rRNA, which in turn disables its function.

The first question we should ask ourselves is: What is rRNA?
rRNA is the ribosomal RNA. This RNA makes up the ribosomes.

The next question is: What do the ribosomes do?
The ribosomes are responsible for the protein synthesis within the cell.

What does this mean for the cell?
Well it means that the cell can not produce proteins anymore, the very proteins that are needed for virtually every function within the cell.

It follows from this that the cell would die, as the current proteins would eventually degrade and be removed, whilst no new proteins are made.

1

Answer:

dd (homozygous recessive, dragon breath shows), Dd (heterozygous, dragon breath does not show), DD (homozygous dominant, dragon breath does not show).

Explanation:

The parents are "carriers" of dragon breath. This means that they are both heterozygous for dragon breath. That means the dragon breath does not show (it's recessive), but they still have the gene. Let's call the dragon breath gene "d," and the other, dominant gene "D." Using a Punnett Square:

http://scienceprimer.com/punnett-square-calculator

(Note : dD and Dd are the same thing).

dd is homozygous recessive, and dragon breath shows. dD/Dd is heterozygous, and dragon breath doesn't show (remember, it's recessive). DD is homozygous dominant, and dragon breath doesn't show, because, the gene for it isn't there!

3

Answer:

Yes!

Explanation:

Oxygen is in fact a by product of light dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

During light reaction of photosynthesis, In non-cyclic electron flow, when Photosystem II absorbs light, an electron is excited to a higher energy level in the reaction center of Chlorophyll #P_680#. Thus a hole has been created in its reaction center & chlorophyll has become a very strong oxidizing agent. It's electron hole must be filled.

Thus an enzyme extracts electron from water, splitting the water molecule into two hydrogen ions and one oxygen atom. The oxygen atom abrubptly combine with another oxygen atom to form #O_2#. This reaction of photosynthesis during which xygen is produced is known as photolysis.* This oxygen produced is the main source for replenishment of atmospheric oxygen.
#H_2O# #to# #2H^+ + 2e^- + 1/2O_2#
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-final-electron-accepter-in-noncyclic-photophosphorylation

Hope it helps!

3

Answer:

A cell loses it's #H_2O# molecules when it is placed in hypertonic solution.

Explanation:

Hypertonic solution is the one which contain more concentration of solutes as compared to the concentration of solutes in cytoplasm of cell. Which means that a solution contains less water as compared to the water within the cell.

So, When cell is placed in this kind of solution then water#(H_2O)# molecules move from their higher concentration to their lower concentration i.e from cell to hypertonic solution. This movement of water molecule is called osmosis and it is due to the fact that everything in the universe tends to attain equilibrium(balance). Water molecules also try to balance their concentration in both environments(extracellular & intracellular). Thus, cell gives its water to the solution in which it has been placed. Hence, it loses water and gets shrunk.

The image below manifests: what happens to red blood cells when it's placed in hypertonic solution?
http://slideplayer.com/slide/10452092/

Hope it helps!

2

Answer:

No!

Explanation:

The purpose of #"DNA ligase"# is to join the okazaki fragments that are manufactured at lagging strand of replication fork. While at leading strand, the nucleotides are added continuously to the growing #3^'# end. So it doesn't have any okazaki fragments, hence it doesn't need #"DNA ligase"# .

https://yourmomislike.wordpress.com/2012/12/01/your-mom-is-like-an-okazaki-fragment/

Hope it helps!

1

Answer:

Mendel's Law of Independent assortment is a law stating that allele pairs separate independently during gametes formation.

Explanation:

Detailed explanation:

  • The law is only true for traits that are not linked ( seed color vs. seed shape).
  • When two or more characteristics are inherited by an individual, those characteristics assort independently during gamete production.
  • This gives the various traits an equal opportunity of occurring together.
  • In other words: the inheritance of one trait will not affect the inheritance of another.

Law of Independent Assortment example:
http://passel.unl.edu/communities/index.php?idinformationmodule=1130447247&topicorder=4&maxto=27&minto=1&idcollectionmodule=1130274258

2

Answer:

Basically aerates space b/w middle ear & nasopharynx.

Explanation:

Eustachian tube is also known as auditory tube and pharyngo-tympanic tube. It is #3.5cm# long and connects middle ear to the naso-pharynx.

Functions:
It helps to equalize or balance the air pressure in the tympanic cavity(a cavity surrounding the bones of middle ear) and naso-pharynx. It also withdraws secretion of middle ear e.g mucus into nasopharynx. But prevents the nasopharyngeal secretions to flow back into middle ear. Aerates space between middle ear and nasopharynx and also protect ear from sound pressures.
www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/eustachian-tubes

Hope it helps!