# Make the internet a better place to learn

1

## What natural resources are found in the coastal waters of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Congo?

Ms. Worth
Featured 2 weeks ago

The area is rich in oil and natural gas.

#### Explanation:

The West-Central Coastal Province of the Sub-Saharan Africa Region consists of the coastal and offshore areas of

• Cameroon
• Equatorial Guinea
• Gabon
• the Congo
• and many more places

Since 1995, several giant oil fields have been discovered, especially in the deep-water area of the Congo Basin.

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in this province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000.

The USGS estimated

Here's a map that includes the areas in this question.

Here is another image of this area

It's a special part of the world, the place where the Prime Meridian crosses the equator.

You can find out more about the hydrocarbon resources of this area here:
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/b2207B

1

## What are high altitude , high-velocity winds?

Ms. Worth
Featured 1 week ago

High altitude, high velocity winds are called $\text{jet streams.}$
https://quizlet.com/135896449/chapter-19-review-earth-science-flash-cards/

#### Explanation:

According to actforlibraries.org

• Jet streams are very fast moving currents of air found at about 10 km (6.2 miles) above the surface of the earth.
• The major jet streams usually follow an undulating narrow path from west to east.
• There are jet streams on both sides of the equator.
• Jet streams close to the poles are called polar jet streams
• Those at the tropics are known as subtropical jet streams, which are weaker than the polar jets.
• Jet streams form due to the orbital rotation of the planet, along with atmospheric variations in temperature, which produces strong winds.

Here is an image of the jet streams

Here's an AccuWeather illustration of how the jet stream brought the ultra-cold weather down from the Arctic to the eastern United States in the last few weeks

2

## How can tides form?

Giorgio C.
Featured 1 week ago

Gravitational pull of moon and sun on the Earth oceans and Earth rotation.

#### Explanation:

The gravitational pull of the moon and of the sun affects the oceans (and other large water bodies) of the Earth.

The water on the side of the planet closer to the Moon is attracted towards it generating a bulge; on the opposite side a similar bulge is created by the inertia of the water that tends to move away from the Earth due to the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the planet.

In a theoretical homogeneous and continuous ocean two equal high tides and two equal low tides should follow each other within 24h.

This theoretical situation is modified by several factors:

• The "lunar day" (that is the time required for any given point on the Earth surface to rotate from an exact position under the moon back to the same position) is of 24h and 50 minutes. This causes the cycle of high-tide / low-tide to be repeated every 12h and 25 minutes. It takes 6h and 12 minutes for the water along any given shore to go from high to low or from low to high.

• The ocean is not continuous and its movements are affected by the surrounding land-masses thus causing changes in both timing and amplitude of the tides. Some areas experience two low and to high tides of similar amplitude each day following a "semidiurnal" cycle. When the tides differ in amplitude the cycle is called mixed. Finally other areas have one high and one low tide only each day and this cycle is called "diurnal"

• The relative position of Moon and Sun affects the magnitude of the tides with the maximum high (or low) tide generated when the combined gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun is the maximum (spring tides).

• Specific topography of the shore can affect the magnitude of the tide. As example funnel-shaped bays may amplify the tide creating massive high and low tide. This is the case for the Bay of Fundy in Canada with tidal range up to 17 meters.

• The combined effect of wind and tide can also enhance or reduce the magnitude of the tidal range.

1

## What is a Neap Tide?

Ms. Worth
Featured 2 weeks ago

Neap tides are the tides with the least difference between the high and low tides.
They are the two lowest high tides of the month.

#### Explanation:

Tides are caused by gravitational attraction from the moon and from the sun.

When the sun and moon are both pulling in the $s a m e$ direction, the tides get higher than usual.

But when the sun and moon are pulling at $r i g h t$ $a$$n g$$l$$e s$ to each other, the tides don't get as high as usual.

When the gravitational pull of the sun and moon are working together, it causes an unusually high tide called a spring tide.

When the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon are pulling at right angles to each other, it causes an unusually low high tide called a neap tide.

Here is a diagram showing how gravitational pull causes
spring tides and neap tides:

3

## What are divergent plate boundaries and what landforms do they create?

David Drayer
Featured 2 weeks ago

divergent plate boundaries are where convections current move upwards, and separate the plates.

#### Explanation:

At divergent boundaries new crustal material is brought to the surface. As the convection current comes to the surface it also moves outward in both directions (see image below). This causes the crust to separate into two different pieces.

An example of a divergent boundary is the mid Atlantic Ridge (there are mid ocean ridges in the Indian, and Pacific Oceans as well). The Mid Atlantic Ridge creates volcanos where the hot magma erupts from the underlining mantle. Many of these volcanos are undersea volcanos forming the mid Atlantic ridge. However in Iceland the the volcanos reach the surface forming the Island chain.

As the crust is pushed in two different directions it forms magnetic strips that are reflective and symmetrical on both sides of the Mid Atlantic ridge. This was part of the evidence that convinced Scientists that the theory of (Continental Drift) Plate tectonics was correct.

Divergent boundaries also create Rift Valleys and new oceans. The Rift Valley in East Africa is the result of a divergent boundary (image below). The Red Sea and the Dead Sea are thought to have been formed by the same divergent boundary.

Divergent boundaries, create mid ocean ridges, undersea volcanos, islands, rift valleys and new oceans.

3

## Which part or Australia typically receives the most moisture?

Ms. Worth
Featured 2 weeks ago

The part of Australia with the most precipitation is the Tropical Climate area in the north

#### Explanation:

Rainfall in Australia tends to decrease as you move from north to south, and as you move from the east coast to the interior.

So the areas of high rainfall tend to generally occur in a curve from the north of the continent, then around to the east side, then down to the south.

Here is a color-coded map that shows the average yearly precipitation in Australia:

According to the web site "Climates to Travel,"
https://www.climatestotravel.com/climate/australia
the precipitation of Australia can be conveniently divided into four large regions:

1. Tropical climate (Darwin, Brisbane) --The rainiest area

3. Arid climate
4. South-east (Canberra, Sydney, Melbourne, Hobart)
$\textcolor{w h i t e}{m m m m m m m m}$_____

1. The Tropical Climate area

The vast northern area has a tropical climate, with a dry and sunny season ("the dry"), usually from May to October, and a rainy and muggy season ("the wet"), usually from November to April.

The annual rainfall exceeds 15.5" and is more abundant along the northernmost and the eastern coasts, where it exceeds 47".

The tropical rains occur mainly in the afternoon or evening in the form of downpours or thunderstorms. In the south-east, where Brisbane is located, the winter is cooler, so the climate becomes sub-tropical. Vegetation is savanna-type in the driest areas, with rainforests in the wettest part of the north-eastern coast.

In Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory, 58.5" of rain per year fall, mostly between November to early April. The rainiest month is January, with almost 15.5" of rain. But from May to September it almost never rains.

Here is the average precipitation in inches for Darwin:

Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec|  YEAR
———————————————————————————
15 | 12 | 10 |  4  |  tr  | tr  | 0 |  0   |  tr  |  2  |   5  | 10 |    58.5

Here is a map of the Tropical Climate area

$\textcolor{w h i t e}{m m m m m m m m}$_____

2. The Mediterranean Climate
There are a couple of areas with a Mediterranean climate, with mild and rainy winters, and warm and sunny summers.

In Perth, Western Australia, 31.5" of rain falls in a typical year, most of which occurs from May to August, with a maximum of 6.7" in July, the central month of winter.

Here's a map of the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia:

$\textcolor{w h i t e}{m m m m m m m m}$_____

3. The Arid Climate
In the vast area called "Outback", the climate is arid, semi-desert (where annual precipitation is between 8 and 16" per year), or even desert (below 8" per year.)

In the semi-desert area, the rains in the north-central part fall in the form of downpour or thunderstorm in the hottest period, while in the southernmost part they occur mostly in winter.

In the most arid area, the rains are rare and sporadic, but every now and then a thunderstorm may erupt, most likely in summer.

Here is a map of the Arid Climate area

You can find out more about Australia's climate here:
http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/by%20Subject/1301.0~2012~Main%20Features~Australia%27s%20climate~143

3

## What is difference between focus and epicentre?

Giorgio C.
Featured 1 week ago

The source of the earthquake at depth is the focus and its projection at surface is the epicentre.

#### Explanation:

Earthquakes are generated by a sudden release of energy along deep fractures in the Earth's crust called "seismogenic faults".

The point where a mechanical rupture along the seismogenic fault happens is called focus or hypocentre. It can be several kilometers deep below the surface. It is the very source of the earthquake

The point located directly above the focus (its projection on the Earth's surface) is called epicentre. This is the area where the effects of the earthquake are the strongest.

Generally a shallower focus allows more energy to reach the surface thus the generated earthquake is more damaging.

Using the arrival time of the seismic waves at different detection stations it is possible to calculate the position of the epicentre and the depth of the focus through some trigonometric calculation.

3

## What are the similarities between land breeze and sea breeze?

Giorgio C.
Featured 1 week ago

Orthogonal to the seashore

#### Explanation:

Land breeze and sea breeze are generated in function of the changes in atmospheric pressure above the land and the sea in coastal areas. These changes are due to the different heating and cooling of the water and the land through the day.

Both breezes flow almost orthogonal to the seashore.

During the day the land is heated by the sun faster and at higher temperature than the sea. As result the air above becomes less dense and rises. This causes a drop in local pressure that must be filled causing colder and denser air to flow from the sea towards the shore.

At night the opposite happens: the land cools faster and at lower temperatures than the water of the sea. This causes denser air to flow from the shore to the ocean.

At high altitude the breezes generate opposite return flows.

(picture from akweather.com)

1

## Where is Earth's mantle located?

Jacob F.
Featured 20 hours ago

Under the core

#### Explanation:

There are four layers. Crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. The crust is the layer that we live on. Under the crust is the mantle and under the mantle is the core.

1

## Which fossil type provides the most anatomical to paleontologists?

Charlie P.
Featured 20 hours ago

Something that has been mummified, for example a Woolly Mammoth in permafrost or anything organic in the most closest form of something in suspended animation.

#### Explanation:

A fossil is something that has been preserved, whether it be in an imprint in a rock like a foot print, or it be an arrowhead lying at the back of a cave where early man once dwelled. It is something that has been preserved that we can learn something from, whether it be valuable or invaluable.

I would propose something, that is mummified, which is something that is deceased and has had all of its biological details preserved to the extent that it looks how it would of been when it died.

*The well preserved baby Woolly Mammoth that was discovered by a reindeer herder *

Animals or even plants, which were frozen in permafrost, amber, peat or tar, are some of the best preserved specimens we have to date, which were not preserved by human action, such as when we put an organism in preservation alcohol or formaldehyde.

Examples of specimens preserved/mummified by the use of spirits, which have been 'pickled'

We learn so much from these types of preservation due to the fact that the organic material on the body does not decompose, due to the microorganisms having either no heat in the case of permafrost, oxygen in amber or peat, or moisture (and lack of sunlight) at the back of an arid cave, this is why many scientists are excited about the fact we could soon start cloning these creatures again, due to the fact their genome/DNA is close to complete.

A plant that was cloned from the fruit of the narrowed-leafed campion over 32,000 years ago, that was preserved in permafrost

We can also study these creatures a lot better, due to the fact that many which have been preserved by these natural methods have little or no bacteria on their bodies as they have come inhospitable for them, this is called desiccation, however for some frozen specimens, desiccation does not work so well for.

We must however, at the end of the day think about what we learn from something that is fossilised this way or anyway. You can learn a lot from an organism that has desiccated such as its organs and biology, but you cannot learn for example its behaviour or migratory routes from just one of these specimens, this is why all fossils help to build up the picture for paleontologists alike about what the past was like.

Hope this helps
-Charlie!