Between the crust and the core... See more info below:
The mantle is between the core and crust of the earth. It makes up around 80% of the earth's atmosphere and around 17% of the earth's volume. It is around 2.900km thickness and is made from magma.
To answer your question:
It is located between the core and the crust.
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Something that has been mummified, for example a Woolly Mammoth in permafrost or anything organic in the most closest form of something in suspended animation.
A fossil is something that has been preserved, whether it be in an imprint in a rock like a foot print, or it be an arrowhead lying at the back of a cave where early man once dwelled. It is something that has been preserved that we can learn something from, whether it be valuable or invaluable.
I would propose something, that is mummified, which is something that is deceased and has had all of its biological details preserved to the extent that it looks how it would of been when it died.
*The well preserved baby Woolly Mammoth that was discovered by a reindeer herder *
Animals or even plants, which were frozen in permafrost, amber, peat or tar, are some of the best preserved specimens we have to date, which were not preserved by human action, such as when we put an organism in preservation alcohol or formaldehyde.
Examples of specimens preserved/mummified by the use of spirits, which have been 'pickled'
We learn so much from these types of preservation due to the fact that the organic material on the body does not decompose, due to the microorganisms having either no heat in the case of permafrost, oxygen in amber or peat, or moisture (and lack of sunlight) at the back of an arid cave, this is why many scientists are excited about the fact we could soon start cloning these creatures again, due to the fact their genome/DNA is close to complete.
A plant that was cloned from the fruit of the narrowed-leafed campion over 32,000 years ago, that was preserved in permafrost
We can also study these creatures a lot better, due to the fact that many which have been preserved by these natural methods have little or no bacteria on their bodies as they have come inhospitable for them, this is called desiccation, however for some frozen specimens, desiccation does not work so well for.
We must however, at the end of the day think about what we learn from something that is fossilised this way or anyway. You can learn a lot from an organism that has desiccated such as its organs and biology, but you cannot learn for example its behaviour or migratory routes from just one of these specimens, this is why all fossils help to build up the picture for paleontologists alike about what the past was like.
Hope this helps
First of all, tectonic plates are always moving, even if we may not feel them. This movement causes many things to happen, and change the earth.
Cracks in the earth are sometimes formed from this movement. The continents slowly move, and sometimes, they can start to break apart. Now, this doesn't just happen in 20 years. It take millions of years, so no need to worry about the earth opening up and you falling into a pit of magma. A couple years ago, an ice shelf was found in Antarctica from this movement.
Volcanos are also created from the tectonic plates moving. When two plates are moving, and they hit each other, one will slowly be pushed down beneath the other, and create a volcano.
Those are just a few examples of how tectonic plate movement can change the earth, there are many more. Here are some related questions showing how this movement shapes the earth:
Gravity works with water, ice, and wind to cause erosion in many ways.
Wind: Gravity works with wind because wind blown hail, snow, or sleet can hit rocks with a great force, eroding them.
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A solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves in a line directly between earth and the sun, casting a shadow on earth. This produces a solar eclipse. This situation occurs during new-moon phases. The moon is eclipsed when it moves within Earth’s shadow, producing a lunar eclipse. This situation occurs during full- moon phases.
During a total solar eclipse, the moon casts a circular shadow that is never wider than 275 kilometers, about the length of South Carolina. Anyone observing in this region will see the moon slowly block the sun from view and the sky darken. When the eclipse is almost com- plete, the temperature sharply drops a few degrees. The solar disk is completely blocked for seven minutes at the most. This happens because the moon’s shadow is so small. Then one edge of the solar disk reappears.
When the eclipse is complete, the dark moon is seen covering the complete solar disk. Only the sun’s brilliant white outer atmosphere is visible. Total solar eclipses are visible only to people in the dark part of the moon’s shadow known as the umbra. A partial eclipse is seen by those in the light portion of the shadow, known as the penumbra.
A total solar eclipse is a rare event at any location. The next one that will be visible from the United States will take place on August 21, 2017. It will sweep southeast across the country from Oregon to South Carolina.
tsunami , earthquakes and volcanic dust.
The island that had been Santorini exploded leaving just a broken ring of rocks outlining the circle of the volcanic cone.
The ash plume that was created by the explosion of an entire island would have blanketed the surrounding area. The dust would have destroyed crops changed the climate for a time, and caused havoc with travel, health, and commerce.
The earthquakes created by the massive explosion are thought to have destroyed the palace culture of Crete. The earthquakes would have caused damage throughout the area.
The earthquakes would also create huge earthquake water waves, known as Tsunami. These powerful fast moving waves would have spread out in all directions from the ruined island causing damage wherever the waves made landfall.
Ash, earthquakes, tsunami would all have created damage as part of the hazards of the volcanic eruption.
Under-water trenches and ridges are created by plate tectonics.
The crust of the earth is covered with Oceanic and Continental plates. These plates are moving constantly but are moving very very slowly. They move because of something called convection currents. Convection currents push these plates together and apart. Convection currents are created by rising and falling heat in the earth's mantle.
When two oceanic plates are pushed away from each other, magma rises to the surface between the plates and creates a ridge. When two oceanic plates are coming together, the older denser plate/crust is subducted or pulled beneath the other plate and creates a trench. Combinations of different plates can result in different outcomes.
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There are two types of Igneous rocks:
The difference is that:
Sedimentary rocks are usually formed under water when grains of broken rocks are glued together while igneous rocks form when melted rock (magma or lava) cools and metamorphic are rocks that once were igneous or sedimentary rocks but have been changed by pressure and temperature.
Most of that
But there is a little bit of
But the vast majority of the earth's
These frozen ice sheets contain about
Here's an image showing the relative amounts of water on earth
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The different types of fossils include:
Each of them form in different ways...
Fossils often form when an organism’s remains become petrified, or “turned into stone.” In this process, mineral-rich water soaks into the small cavities and pores of the original organ- ism. The minerals precipitate from the water and fill the spaces.
A fossil mold is created when a shell or other structure is buried in sediment and then dissolved by underground water. The mold reflects only the shape and surface markings of the organism. It doesn’t reveal any information about its internal structure.
Cast fossils are created if the hollow spaces of a mold are later filled with mineral matter.
Fossils called carbon films can preserve delicate details of leaves and animal parts. The formation of a carbon film begins when an organism is buried under fine sediment. Over time, pressure squeezes out liquids and gases and leaves behind a thin film of carbon. Black shale often contains carbon film fossils. Sometimes, the carbon film itself is lost from a fossil. However, an impression of the fossil may remain.
(From Google Image)
Sometimes, fossilization preserves all or part of an organism with relatively little change. The mammoth frozen in permafrost is one example. Another example is insects preserved in amber—the hardened resin, or sap, of ancient trees. The fly in Figure 10E was preserved after being trapped in a drop of sticky resin. Fossils can also form when remains are preserved in tar. Tar is thick petroleum that collects in pools at the surface. The La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California, have yielded preserved remains of ice-age mammals such as mastodons and sabre-toothed cats.
Trace fossils are indirect evidence of prehistoric life. Tracks, like the ones in the picture below, are animal footprints made of soft sediment that later changed to sedimentary rock. Burrows are holes made by an animal in sediment, wood, or rock that were later filled with mineral matter and preserved. Some of the oldest known fossils are believed to be worm burrows. Coprolites are fossils of dung and stomach con- tents. These can often provide useful information regarding the food habits of organisms. Gastroliths are highly polished stomach stones that were used in the grinding of food by some extinct reptiles.