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6

Answer:

Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others.

Explanation:

Our bodies are magnificent machines. One of the ways they demonstrate this is by taking repetitive motions and actions and reducing the resources needed to perform them. For instance, when a baby is learning to walk, each step is planned and performed. But after a relatively short period of time, they are running without giving it a thought - they just run (and run and run and run...)

Our brains do the same thing. The world is full of information that continually enters our senses. In order to speed up processing time and reduce the energy needed to perform those functions, it operates largely on what is expected and not necessarily on what is actually there.

And that is what Perception Set Theory gets into - how the brain "perceives" - or as the below link describes it - "Perceptual set theory stresses the idea of perception as an active process involving selection, inference and interpretation."

Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. For instance, have you ever seen this:

Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

The brain doesn't read every word but instead selects out important bits and teases out the rest based on expectation and inference.

Another kind of perceptual set is when we have a fear of snakes, to automatically assume that every suspicious looking thing in the grass is a snake - even though most times we're looking at a garden hose.

There are a number of ways perception sets can change. If we're hungry, the perception set will tend to look for food over other things.

The link has a great article about perception sets.

http://www.simplypsychology.org/perceptual-set.html

6

Answer:

Depending on how you define the opposite of anthropomorphism, it could be one of a few words. I suggest zoomorphism, dehumanize, and deanthropomorphism as possibilities.

Explanation:

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human-like qualities onto non-human subjects, such as inanimate objects, plants, animals, and the like.

There would then be a couple of different ways we could find a word meaning the opposite. One would be a word that refers to the attribution of animal-like qualities onto a human. That word is zoomorphism. Examples include calling someone a "dirty dog", a "skunk", a "snake", etc.

Another way to take the opposite would be to have a word that refers to the removal of human-like traits from a human. That word is dehumanize.

The last way I can see an opposite is by finding a word that refers to the removal of human-like traits from non-humans. I think the best word for that would be deanthropomorphism

http://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/showthread.php?t=430099
http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/115614/word-for-ascribing-animal-like-mentality-to-humans-opposite-of-anthropomorphize

6

Answer:

Memory loss and short term memory loss.

Explanation:

Amnesia is a defect of memory in which a person is unable to create or recall memories as general people can do.

There are two types of it like you've asked:

#1.#Anterograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person is unable to make new memories. He knows everything up until the injury but can't make new memories.

#2.#Retrograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person forget a part of his life or whole whole memory. In this type, the person can make new memories.

In some cases, both of these type of amnesia can occur simultaneously.

I suggest you to see these movies or TV shows to understand more about amnesia:

  1. Memento (Anterograde Amnesia)
  2. Samantha Who? (Retrograde Amnesia)
  3. Who Am I? (Retrograde Amnesia)
3

Answer:

Patriarchy is regarded, by many feminist academics, as the dwelling-place and safeguard of modern sexism.

Explanation:

The concept of patriarchy far exceeds a short form answer. However it can be summed up simply in the idea of a masculinity-based hegemonic and overarching structure in society which prevades and instructs most, if not all, social interactions.

If patriarchy is assumed to exist, it yields a way of explaining sexism in modern society. That is, despite the generally agreed-upon stance that the sexes are equal, people continue to act in ways that indicate an assumed superiority of masculinity or at least an assumption of greater competence in men.

As an example: it is readily observed that women in similar positions to men in a workforce will often receive lower wages. This is explained in two ways: women ask for raises less often, and women are regarded as generally less worthy of raises.

This idea relates to the idea of patriarchy because as viewed by academia, patriarchy, that is to say the distinction between what it means to act like a man and a woman, is the underlying structure that informs the ideals of how a woman "should act" and thus teaches women to be less demanding in their careers. Further, patriarchy again defines the default successful employee as male. This predisposes managers to regarding female employees as less effective and thus less worthy of wage increases.

2

Answer:

Read below:

Explanation:

He calls in a group for an experiment, but in reality there's only one subject in the group - everyone else knows what is going on, and is part of it.

The group is shown two images:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asch_conformity_experiments

The group is asked which line, A B C, is the same length as the line on the left. They are seated in a circle so they answer one by one, and the subject always answers last.

The answer appears to be C, right? There were multiple trials where everyone would give the same answers, then some would answer wrong, then some would answer right.

The goal is to see if the subject will "conform" to the group and answer what everyone else has answered or if the subject won't conform and answer what he/she thinks is the correct answer.

3

Answer:

No, self-actualization is not a basic need.

Explanation:

This explanation is based off of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization is actually the pinnacle, and not everyone will reach it.

This is the pyramid:

http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html

As labeled by the picture, basic needs include the physiological needs and the safety needs, such as food, water, shelter, security...etc.

What Maslow said was that before you could move on to the next level, you had to fulfill the lower level first. Before you care about your security and your safety, you need to have a source of food, water, and shelter.

If you fulfill all the other needs, you reach self-actualization, where you successfully achieve your potential.

So no, you don't need self-actualization as a basic need, but you do need to have your basic needs fulfilled before you can reach self-actualization.

4

Answer:

I'm presuming your question is related to sensation.

Explanation:

Absolute Threshold is the point where some sensory input becomes just noticeable to our senses. It is the softest sound we can hear or the slightest touch we can feel. Anything less than this goes unnoticed.

Once a stimulus becomes detectable, how much must it change by for the change to become noticeable by us? The Difference Threshold is the amount of change needed for us to recognize that a change has occurred. This change is referred to as the Just Noticeable Difference .

This difference however is not absolute. Imagine you have an empty hand, and someone puts a 1 g weight in it. You would notice this weight.
Now imagine that you have a 1 kg weight, and someone adds a 1g weight to that. You would not notice this at all.
This is referred to as Weber’s Law .

Ever wonder why it is that we notice certain smells or sounds right away and then after a while they fade into the background? Once we adapt to the smell of a perfume or the ticking of the clock, we stop recognizing it. This process of becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimulus is referred to as sensory adaptation, after all, if a stimulus doesn’t change, why do we need to constantly sense it?

Source: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sensation/

2

Answer:

The difference in these two logical fallacies is that DF is looking to make an option false while FD is trying make an option true.

Explanation:

I've moved the question to Psychology from English Grammar because this is a psychology/logic question and not a literary device one.

Below is a link to a website that lists out 26 logical missteps, with examples:

http://kspope.com/fallacies/fallacies.php

Ok - now to the question! The difference between a disjunctive fallacy and a false dilemma.

Disjunctive fallacy results from thinking that within a choice between two things, finding one thing true makes the other thing false (even though they might both be true). For instance, I can say:

I bought the new car either because I like the colour or because I like the styling. I like the colour. Therefore I don't like the styling.

In logic format, it looks like this:

#X or Y#
#X#
#"therefore not " Y#

In logic, for the statement #X or Y# to be found as True, either X or Y needs to be found as True. They both can be True - and so this logical fallacy negates one option that shouldn't be negated.

False dilemma results from thinking that within an array of choices, two things are chosen (and one is usually extreme) to force the "logical acceptance" of the second choice. For instance, I could say:

The punishment for a thief should either be 10 years of hard labour or death. It shouldn't be death. Therefore it should be 10 years of hard labour.

In logic format, it looks like this:

#X or Y#
#"not " X#
#"therefore " Y#

In logic, for the statement #X or Y# to be found as True, either X or Y needs to be found as True. If however we throw in a false choice (#X#), the remaining choice is forced to be seen as True.

2

Answer:

An action potential is generated in the following steps: depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization and a refactory period.

Explanation:

Assuming you are referring to depolarization (as to how it's caused!):
Receptor cells (cells which detect change) act as transducers (which means, they can convert, for eg. light into energy in an electrical impulse!). These initiate action potentials.

When there no arrival of an impulse/action potential, the neuron is at it's resting potential . They have a high amount of potassium ions in the axon and a high amount of sodium ions outside ( potential difference ). However, the amount of sodium ions outside are much greater than the potassium ions inside - thus results in an electrochemical gradient. This is maintained by sodium-potassium pumps.

www.s-cool.co.uk (the first part of the axon is at it's resting potential)

  • Depolarization: when an electric current stimulates the axon, voltage-gated channels open in the membrane to allow sodium ions to pass through. It diffuses down the electrochemical gradient. This causes the potential different to become less negative inside the axon (as there is an inflow of sodium ions!). Resulting in depolarization. (the second part in the diagram!)

( I'll include explanations of the other steps as well, just incase.. )

  • Repolarization: due to depolarization, the axon becomes positive (because of the inflow of postassium ions). Thus, voltage-gated channels for sodium close and potassium ion channels open, so that potassium diffuses out. This is to restore the initial potential difference.

  • Hyperpolarization: during repolarization, potassium ions tend to diffuse out toooo much. Causing, hyperpolarization briefly.

  • Finally, the refractory period: at this stage, the axon is not responsive. It is recovering from the action potential to restore its resting potential. (aka back to the resting potential where the axon has a high amount of potassium and outside, there's a high amount of sodium!)

Check out this youtube video for more about action potentials!: