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3

## What is the exact difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia?

Azhar A.
Featured 6 months ago

Memory loss and short term memory loss.

#### Explanation:

Amnesia is a defect of memory in which a person is unable to create or recall memories as general people can do.

There are two types of it like you've asked:

$1.$Anterograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person is unable to make new memories. He knows everything up until the injury but can't make new memories.

$2.$Retrograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person forget a part of his life or whole whole memory. In this type, the person can make new memories.

In some cases, both of these type of amnesia can occur simultaneously.

I suggest you to see these movies or TV shows to understand more about amnesia:

1. Memento (Anterograde Amnesia)
2. Samantha Who? (Retrograde Amnesia)
3. Who Am I? (Retrograde Amnesia)
2

## What is the relationship between patriarchy and sexism?

JMicheli
Featured 6 months ago

Patriarchy is regarded, by many feminist academics, as the dwelling-place and safeguard of modern sexism.

#### Explanation:

The concept of patriarchy far exceeds a short form answer. However it can be summed up simply in the idea of a masculinity-based hegemonic and overarching structure in society which prevades and instructs most, if not all, social interactions.

If patriarchy is assumed to exist, it yields a way of explaining sexism in modern society. That is, despite the generally agreed-upon stance that the sexes are equal, people continue to act in ways that indicate an assumed superiority of masculinity or at least an assumption of greater competence in men.

As an example: it is readily observed that women in similar positions to men in a workforce will often receive lower wages. This is explained in two ways: women ask for raises less often, and women are regarded as generally less worthy of raises.

This idea relates to the idea of patriarchy because as viewed by academia, patriarchy, that is to say the distinction between what it means to act like a man and a woman, is the underlying structure that informs the ideals of how a woman "should act" and thus teaches women to be less demanding in their careers. Further, patriarchy again defines the default successful employee as male. This predisposes managers to regarding female employees as less effective and thus less worthy of wage increases.

2

## What is the Solomon Asch conformity experiment?

Sabrina
Featured 4 months ago

#### Explanation:

He calls in a group for an experiment, but in reality there's only one subject in the group - everyone else knows what is going on, and is part of it.

The group is shown two images:

The group is asked which line, A B C, is the same length as the line on the left. They are seated in a circle so they answer one by one, and the subject always answers last.

The answer appears to be C, right? There were multiple trials where everyone would give the same answers, then some would answer wrong, then some would answer right.

The goal is to see if the subject will "conform" to the group and answer what everyone else has answered or if the subject won't conform and answer what he/she thinks is the correct answer.

3

## Do all humans need self-actualization as a basic need?

Sabrina
Featured 4 months ago

No, self-actualization is not a basic need.

#### Explanation:

This explanation is based off of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization is actually the pinnacle, and not everyone will reach it.

This is the pyramid:

As labeled by the picture, basic needs include the physiological needs and the safety needs, such as food, water, shelter, security...etc.

What Maslow said was that before you could move on to the next level, you had to fulfill the lower level first. Before you care about your security and your safety, you need to have a source of food, water, and shelter.

If you fulfill all the other needs, you reach self-actualization, where you successfully achieve your potential.

So no, you don't need self-actualization as a basic need, but you do need to have your basic needs fulfilled before you can reach self-actualization.

3

## How would you define absolute and difference thresholds?

What a wonderful world
Featured 4 months ago

I'm presuming your question is related to sensation.

#### Explanation:

Absolute Threshold is the point where some sensory input becomes just noticeable to our senses. It is the softest sound we can hear or the slightest touch we can feel. Anything less than this goes unnoticed.

Once a stimulus becomes detectable, how much must it change by for the change to become noticeable by us? The Difference Threshold is the amount of change needed for us to recognize that a change has occurred. This change is referred to as the Just Noticeable Difference .

This difference however is not absolute. Imagine you have an empty hand, and someone puts a 1 g weight in it. You would notice this weight.
Now imagine that you have a 1 kg weight, and someone adds a 1g weight to that. You would not notice this at all.
This is referred to as Weber’s Law .

Ever wonder why it is that we notice certain smells or sounds right away and then after a while they fade into the background? Once we adapt to the smell of a perfume or the ticking of the clock, we stop recognizing it. This process of becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimulus is referred to as sensory adaptation, after all, if a stimulus doesn’t change, why do we need to constantly sense it?

2

## What is the difference between a disjunctive fallacy and a false dilemma?

Parzival S.
Featured 1 month ago

The difference in these two logical fallacies is that DF is looking to make an option false while FD is trying make an option true.

#### Explanation:

I've moved the question to Psychology from English Grammar because this is a psychology/logic question and not a literary device one.

Below is a link to a website that lists out 26 logical missteps, with examples:

http://kspope.com/fallacies/fallacies.php

Ok - now to the question! The difference between a disjunctive fallacy and a false dilemma.

Disjunctive fallacy results from thinking that within a choice between two things, finding one thing true makes the other thing false (even though they might both be true). For instance, I can say:

I bought the new car either because I like the colour or because I like the styling. I like the colour. Therefore I don't like the styling.

In logic format, it looks like this:

$X \mathmr{and} Y$
$X$
$\text{therefore not } Y$

In logic, for the statement $X \mathmr{and} Y$ to be found as True, either X or Y needs to be found as True. They both can be True - and so this logical fallacy negates one option that shouldn't be negated.

False dilemma results from thinking that within an array of choices, two things are chosen (and one is usually extreme) to force the "logical acceptance" of the second choice. For instance, I could say:

The punishment for a thief should either be 10 years of hard labour or death. It shouldn't be death. Therefore it should be 10 years of hard labour.

In logic format, it looks like this:

$X \mathmr{and} Y$
$\text{not } X$
$\text{therefore } Y$

In logic, for the statement $X \mathmr{and} Y$ to be found as True, either X or Y needs to be found as True. If however we throw in a false choice ($X$), the remaining choice is forced to be seen as True.

1

## What channels in the presynaptic neuron open up in response to an action potential?

Cara_Rose
Featured 1 month ago

Voltage-gated calcium ion channels

#### Explanation:

The major one is voltage-gated calcium ion channels, as the influx of calcium is what subsequently triggers vesicles containing neurotransmitter to move and fuse to the presynaptic membrane and be expelled into the synapse via exocytosis.

2

## How are night terrors related to psychosis?

Cara_Rose
Featured 1 month ago

They are both believed to be the result of excess dopamine

#### Explanation:

Although the causes of different sleep and personality disorders remain disputed by researchers. It is generally accepted that psychosis is the result of excess dopamine and over-activation of the dopaminergic system; similarly night terrors, a type of sleep disorder common in younger individuals is thought to also be associated with higher levels of dopamine.

2

## How does action potential occur?

m
Featured 3 weeks ago

An action potential is generated in the following steps: depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization and a refactory period.

#### Explanation:

Assuming you are referring to depolarization (as to how it's caused!):
Receptor cells (cells which detect change) act as transducers (which means, they can convert, for eg. light into energy in an electrical impulse!). These initiate action potentials.

When there no arrival of an impulse/action potential, the neuron is at it's resting potential . They have a high amount of potassium ions in the axon and a high amount of sodium ions outside ( potential difference ). However, the amount of sodium ions outside are much greater than the potassium ions inside - thus results in an electrochemical gradient. This is maintained by sodium-potassium pumps.

(the first part of the axon is at it's resting potential)

• Depolarization: when an electric current stimulates the axon, voltage-gated channels open in the membrane to allow sodium ions to pass through. It diffuses down the electrochemical gradient. This causes the potential different to become less negative inside the axon (as there is an inflow of sodium ions!). Resulting in depolarization. (the second part in the diagram!)

( I'll include explanations of the other steps as well, just incase.. )

• Repolarization: due to depolarization, the axon becomes positive (because of the inflow of postassium ions). Thus, voltage-gated channels for sodium close and potassium ion channels open, so that potassium diffuses out. This is to restore the initial potential difference.

• Hyperpolarization: during repolarization, potassium ions tend to diffuse out toooo much. Causing, hyperpolarization briefly.

• Finally, the refractory period: at this stage, the axon is not responsive. It is recovering from the action potential to restore its resting potential. (aka back to the resting potential where the axon has a high amount of potassium and outside, there's a high amount of sodium!)

Check out this youtube video for more about action potentials!: