It's a sport analogy for the 1876 election controversy.
I'm assuming you are talking about this cartoon. It depicts some shoes/feet kicking the "ballot box" around.
Them kicking around the ballot box looks an awful lot like someone kicking a ball around in a sport, no?
The kicking around of the ball is an analogy to the disputed presidential election returns from South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana,
I believe this refers to the 1876 Presidential election of Rutherford B. Hayes vs Samuel J. Tilden. In this election, Rutherford, a Republican, lost the popular vote but won the electoral college. But that's not what originally happened.
Turns out Tilden was about to win the election- having 184 of the 185 electoral votes. But Republicans accused the Democrats of using physical intimidation and bribery to discourage African Americans from voting in the South. In South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, Dems apparently refused to count African American/Republican votes.
Of course, this resulted in a huge controversy: it ended
at a meeting in February 1877 in Washington, D.C., Where Democrat leaders decided to accept Hayes's election in exchange for Republican promises to withdraw federal troops from the South.
In all, the Cartoon is an analogy to the election: American football rules, the ball was not passed but kicked and carried only, so it is describing the change of the election process
John Locke and Charles Louis Baron Montesquieu
Locke of England wrote before Montesquieu, who built on Locke
s theories. Montesquieu clarified and expanded on Locke's philosophy as Montesquieu's writings were the direct template for the writing of the US constitution.
Locke had proposed that the protection of basic human rights dependent on a separation of powers, principally between the Monocracy and the Legislative bodies. While Locke wrote about the role of the judiciary he did not distinquish between the role of Monocracy and an independent judiciary being able to to judge the actions of the King and the Parliament.
Montesquieu proposed that the three principal roles of government must be separate and able to exercise power against power. ( This idea is reflected in the system of checks and balances found in the US constitution. Montesquieu define the principle parts of the government to be the Executive , Legislative, and Judicial. Baron Montesquieu being a judge himself, clearly defined the Judicial as being separate from the executive and independent of the other two branches.
Baron Montesquieu in contrast to other Enlightenment thinkers had a gloomy view of human nature. He felt that humans have a tendency toward evil and selfishness. Montesquieu stated that a person invested with power is apt to abuse it. This idea is expressed in the phrase power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The ideal government was one that would prevent any one person or group of people from obtaining too much power, that could be then abused to the detriment of human rights and freedom.
Both Locke and Montesquieu believed that the separation of power was essential to the protection of individual rights and freedom. The US constitution is closely modeled on the framework found in the writings of Montesquieu.
The Republican Revolution
The Republican Revolution took place in 1994, 2 years after Democrat Bill Clinton took office. Its tradition that the party in power loses congressional seats in the midterm elections, the only time that didn't happen was in 2002 when Bush's approval rating was in the 80's. The Republican Revolution was that but it was bolstered due to discontent with the Democratic Party. Republican claimed Clinton wasn't the "New Democrat" he claimed to be and Republicans created a new platform to run on in elections called "The Contract with America." Led by Georgia Congressman Newt Gingrich (who would soon become speaker of the House), a wave of Republicans were elected both at the federal level, state level, and local level.
The Republicans got a pickup 54 seats in the House of Reps., 8 seats in the Senate, 12 governorships, 472 legislative seats which resulted in taking control of more than 20 state legislatures, and a swarth of mayoral and city council races. The Republican took control of seats that they hadn't had since the 1900's-1960's. This type of huge gains in seats wouldn't be seen again till the Democratic wave in 2006-2008.
While the Democrats managed to capture a few seats in the following elections, they didn't take control of the House of Reps. till the Dem. wave in 2006.
Here are the results of the 1992 elections
Image Source: Wikipedia
This is the map of the Republican Revolution (1994 midterm elections)
Image Source: Wikipedia
The Democratic-Republican Party
The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. This political faction operated from 1792-1828. The main purpose of this party was to firmly oppose any policies by the Federalists Party, which was run by none other than Alexander Hamilton! The party gained traction and was in power nationally from 1801-1825. Most historians agree that The Democratic-Republican Party was a preliminary to the modern Democratic Party.
During the George Washington administration, many former Anti-Federalists began to congregate to oppose Hamilton's policies. They adopted the name "Republican" because they were heavily influenced by the French Revolution. When war broke out between France and Britain in 1792, the Republican coalition sided with France and the Federalists sided with Britain, causing even more tension.
Transport to the election of 1824, The Democratic-Republican Party was split between the hotly contested election between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. The results of that election fractured the party. The party subsequently split into 2 groups. The National Republicans, who would later become the core of the Whig Party, which were led by Quincy Adams. The other side was organized by future president Martin Van Buren were called Jacksonian Democrats, or later, Democrats. They were led by Jackson himself. The Democratic Party was then established in 1844. The Republican Party wouldn't become established until 1854.
Goldwater was a bit of an extremists in term of policy. He is responsible for taking Republican policies and taking them further right. He rallied against things like The Great Society (The Great Society was a program launched by President Johnson to try and eliminate poverty and racial injustice.) and he also rallied against welfare programs. Goldwater was seen as a racist by many. That hurt his support among normal Republicans.
Photos like these Klan members supporting Goldwater were spread throughout the country. In which hurt his support for minorities.
Goldwater was also known as a huge supporter of the nuclear program. Nuclear war was a real threat back than and still kind of is today. The Johnson campaign released an infamous "Daisy" ad attacking Goldwater's support of using nuclear weapons. The ad is linked below.
The Election results were disastrous for Goldwater.
Goldwater lost by huge margins. Some very conservative states switched and voted Democratic. This election was the last time Alaska, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming voted Democratic. Goldwater even almost lost his home state of Arizona. He only won it by less than a percentage point. He did okay in the deep south, where his type of politics were more popular and widespread.
Overall, Goldwater fractured the Republican Party. Before then, Republican politics were pretty moderate. Like Susan Collins type of moderate. A more far-right wing of the Republican politics was created and still lasts to this day. He alienated Moderate Democrats, Independents, and mainstream Republicans.
Although there was no law that said you can only serve 2 terms until 1947, George Washington wanted to retire to Mount Vernon after his 2nd term. If Washington did run for a third term, historians say that the stress could have killed the already elderly Washington. A president dying in office wouldn't have been so good for a newly formed nation.
It was custom and tradition for the next century and a half that the President only serve 2 terms. Theodore Roosevelt tried to run for a third term under the Bull Moose Party but ended up not winning and split the Republican vote and a Democrat won (Woodrow Wilson) because of it.
The only president to serve more than 2 terms was FDR. First elected in 1932, FDR is considered one of the best presidents in modern American history. He led the country out of the Depression, and led us through WW2 as well. He decided to run for a third term in the 1940 Presidential election. His Republican opponent, Wendell Willkie tried to use him running for a third term against him but it didn't work out so well. Willkie's campaign made these pins.
Roosevelt won that election overwhelmingly. He collected 449 electoral votes and 54% of the popular vote compared to Willkie's 44%.
After Roosevelt was again overwhelmingly elected to a 4th term, Roosevelt died less than a year later. VP Harry Truman took office was was elected in his own right in 1948. Shortly after Roosevelt's death, the Republican Congress passed legislation to make running for more than 2 terms illegal. It passed in 1947 and the states adopted it in 1951.
The first cause was perhaps taxation without representation
The second cause was the perhaps the prohibition of settlement west of the crest of the Appalachian mountains.
The French and Indian war began in the Ohio River Valley as a conflict over who the land belonged to. The French claimed the Ohio Valley as did the states of Virginia and Pennsylvania. The American colonies wanted land more than anything else where they could own their own farms and be independent.
The American Colonies fought the French and Indians to gain control of the lands west of the Appalachian mountains. The first battle of the French and Indian war was fought between Virginia militia lead by George Washington and the French over control of the three rivers area of what is now Pittsburgh.
At the end of the French and Indian Wars the American Colonies felt that they had earned the right to settle in the Ohio River Valley.
The British having won control of Canada and the profitable fur trade wanted to keep the Indians, that had sided with the French, happy. To achieve peace with the Indian tribes and maintain the fur trade that depended on the Indians passed a law in 1763 that prohibited settlement west of Appalachian Mountains.
The American Colonies felt betrayed and cheated by the law that blocked their settlement of the west. The bitterness and resentment that the prohibition of 1763 was a major cause of the American Revolution.
The unpopularity of of the democratic candidate.
Incumbent President Calvin Coolidge declined to seek re-election. So the front runner for the Republican nomination was Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. There was a anti-Hoover faction within the Republican Party but they failed to rally around another candidate so Hoover received the majority of votes at the Republican Convention. Hoover chose Kansas senator Charles Curtis for his VP.
The Democratic nominee was Al Smith. There weren't a lot of huge names in the running because of the strong economy at the time. Al Smith was the Governor of New York. Smith then proceed to choose Joseph Robinson, a senator from Arkansas as his VP. Smith was a Roman Catholic, the first to be nominated for a major party, and religion became an issue in the election. Many protestants feared that he would take orders from the Vatican. There were uneasy feelings about both nominees and neither gained whole support from their party.
The general election was a bruiser for Al Smith. His faith was a controversy that anti-catholic causes took advantage of, the Tammany Hall scandal, and Smith's anti-prohibition beliefs. Republican ran on the booming economy of the 1920's (roaring 20's) and that resonated with many Americans.
The results were disastrous for Al Smith.
Smith won the deep south, as Democrats were popular in the deep south at the time. But Hoover over-preformed in many southern communities. Smith lost his home state of New York by about 2 points. He did win Massachusetts and Rhode Island by razor thin margins.
Here are the results by county.
However, Hoover is considered one of the worst presidents in modern American history. He is pointed to as responsible for leading the country into the Great Depression and not taking enough action to lift us out of it. Many called him "A do-nothing President." Hoover did help build communities that the poor and homeless could go and live in. These communities were called "Hoovervilles" by the occupants. Hoover's deep unpopularity led to Franklin D. Roosevelt's huge win in the 1932 election.
Well this is awkward... Also I love this type of history so my answer will be long.
Maria Reynolds came to Alexander Hamilton in the summer of 1791. She needed help. Long abandoned by her abusive husband, Maria went to Hamilton seeking for help returning to New York. Hamilton himself was a New Yorker, so Reynolds thought he could help her travel back to New York so she could stay with friends and family.
Hamilton was happy to help, but he couldn't meet up with her right away, so he later arrived at the Reynolds home. When he arrived Maria led him to an upstairs bedroom. They had a conversation and Hamilton said that he felt “other than pecuniary consolation would be acceptable." And then began the affair with them writing letter to each other frequently.
Hamilton's wife and children were currently with relatives in Albany, so Hamilton and Reynolds continued to see each other till the fall of 1791, until the abusive husband returned. Maria proceeded to send Alexander a letter that would go on to say that the husband (James Reynolds) found out about the affair and is threatening to write a letter to Mrs. Hamilton.
James Reynolds sent Hamilton a letter saying that Hamilton "had destroyed a happy marriage." Which of course was not true as the marriage was already falling apart. James goes on to say that if Hamilton pays him $1,000, then James will leave town. Instead James didn't leave town and he allowed the relationship between the two. With the condition that Hamilton pays James every so often in little sums.
James got into a bit of trouble and landed on forgery charges. James thought that Hamilton could help him out, in which Hamilton refused. So James told Hamilton's Republican rivals that he had dirt on a top Federalists. So James Monroe (who would be later elected president), with Congressmen Abe Venable and Frederick Muhlenberg visited both James and Maria and got the information they needed.
They confronted Hamilton and Hamilton admitted to the affair. He also said that he'd been a fool to allow James to extort from him. But Hamilton, along with Monroe and Muhlenberg, were respected Gov't officials. Happy that they didn't find anything that Hamilton had done wrong, they promised to keep it a secret (affairs were very common with wealthy Gov't officials in this era).
Monroe kept copies of the letter between Hamilton and Maria and sent them to Thomas Jefferson (who had affairs too.)
Hamilton then wrote an essay criticizing Jefferson, which bit Hamilton back when journalist James Callender wrote a book on the history of the US, which accused Hamilton of a speculation scheme within the Treasury. Hamilton was forced to either deny everything and be proven that he was lying, or to admit the affair.
Hamilton decided to admit the affair and then he published a pamphlet giving his side of the story. Known for being clever, Hamilton's pamphlet made it seem "positively simple." James Reynolds refused to allow Hamilton to see Maria again.
The pamphlet was damaging to Hamilton image, but got rid of accusations of involvement of the scheme. The pamphlet killed any higher political aspirations for Hamilton, and he personally blamed Monroe. Hamilton's wife, Elizabeth, forgave him.
Maria Reynolds would file for divorce against James. Do you know that attorney that litigated that? It was none other than Aaron Burr.
the ideal is that people should be free from government control. The constitution provides for governmental control. The bill of rights tries to limit the power of the government.
The American ideal was that people should be able to live without government control. The oppressive government of King George of England made the American colonist afraid of government. The almost total freedom of a pioneer farmer living on his own in the forest was part of the American experience and ideal.
The Articles of Confederation were written to provide maximum freedom and a very limited government. The underlying assumption was that people were inheirtently good would act in the best interest of themselves and the community. The reality then as now is that it didn't work.
The Shay's rebellion took place because Bankers were unfairly taking over those ideal small farms, leaving the farmers with nothing out of greed and selfishness. Inter state trade couldn't function because each state taxed the imports states exports to that state's advantage. The self defense of the nation failed because the states refused to pay for either an army or a navy every state wanting the other states to pay for the common defense.
The reality is that people are not basically good and total freedom without any governmental control results in chaos. The Constitution reflects the reality that to provide for the common defense protect people from other people's greed, and have a prosperous economy some governmental control is necessary.
The Bill of rights was written to limit the power of the government created by the constitution. The fear was that the government would become too powerful taking control over people's lives. Basic human freedoms are protected under the Bill of Rights.
The ideal is that people should be free. The reality is that people when totally free do evil. There has to be a government to protect people from other people. However the government is often a source of evil, itself. Hence the constitution and the Bill of Rights.