Harry S. Truman (I)
Thomas E. Dewey
J. Strom Thurmond
There they are.
They wanted him to get a proper education.
Alexander Hamilton lived in the British West Indies for his youth. A hurricane then ravaged the town of Christiansted in 1772. Hamilton then preceded to write a letter to his father, in which he gave a very detailed account of the hurricane.
A local minister got his hands in the letter and published it in the newspaper the Royal Danish-American Gazette. The minister thought that the letter was full of "bombastic excesses" and he said it was wondrous that a self-educated clerk could write with such verve and gusto.
When the letter was published, community leaders were very impressed with Hamilton and agreed to send him to the mainland and fund his education. If it wasn't for this, our country's history might have turned up quite different.
In the musical play Hamilton, there is a song that talks about his childhood and explains the events that happened to him. The link is below, and make sure to listen and comprehend the lyrics.
Harry Truman, Thomas Dewey, and Strom Thurmond
On the Democratic ticket, there was incumbent president Harry Truman, that took over after FDR had passed. On the Republican ticket was Thomas Dewey who was the 47th Governor of New York. Dewey had run as the Republican nominee against FDR in 1944 and lost. Then there was Strom Thurmond. The Democratic party was a crossroads of sorts at this point in history. Historically the Democratic party had been the party of the South. A lot of Democrats at this time started to modernize and support civil rights and that began to alienate white southerners (this would continue until LBJ and the passage of the Civil Right Act, when the South no longer became a Democratic stronghold and started to vote Republican) . Strom Thurmond created the Dixiecrat party in response to this modernization and mainly appealed to pro-segregationists.
The election results were quite a surprise. Most people though that since Truman had low approval ratings and along with the split in the Democratic party that he would lose. People become so sure of this that the Chicago Daily Tribune famously ran a paper before any polling places closed, announcing Dewey as the winner. Truman famously held up the blunder for all America to see.
The final results were nothing like anybody expected. Truman won huge margins in the electoral college and won by over 2 million votes. Strom Thurmond won a few southern states and only got a little over 1 million votes.
Besides women entering the work force, The Great Migration of African Americans from the south helped maintain industrial output
The African American population of the south had been underemployed working for very poor wages or no wages at all in the share cropping schemes in the south. Many African Americans could little or no work in the south. The caste system and Jim Crow laws regulated much of the African American population to virtual slavery.
World War II blocked immigration from Europe that had supplied much of the labor force needed in the northern factories and industries. Many workers had volunteered or been drafted to fight in the war. The workers became soldiers leaving gaps in the factories.
Agricultural workers were not subject to the draft as agriculture was deemed essential to the war effort. Most of the African Americans in the south were agricultural workers and therefore not drafted. African Americans were discouraged from volunteering and enlisting in the armed forces because of racial prejudice.
There was a major population shift as African Americans that had been working as underpaid, and underemployed agricultural workers moved north to work in the factories during the war.
Many wartime factories had up to 50% of their workforce being migrant workers from the South. These hardworking African Americans filled the gaps left by the departing soldiers and kept the factories working during the war.
I am posting supplementary information, not to dispute the answer given by Velocity, but to add to it, for anyone who is interested...
Inspired by the question and the posted answer, I did a search, read a bunch of interesting articles - most of which didn't directly address the question asked here - and found the following:
Click on the link on this page, "First American ice cream parlor?"
Quote from that section of the page:
"Who opened the first American ice cream parlor, where, and when?
Excellent questions with no single answer. Our research uncovers two "claimants" to the title of first commercial American establishment selling ice cream. They were both located in 1770s downtown New York City. The person most often credited is Philip Lenzi, who established his store (probably) in 1774. Advertisments published in local period newspapers document his existence."
If you are seriously interested in the question, please don't stop here. You will find much interesting reading if you conduct your own search.
It was a case where the state and local governments ignored the rulings of the Supreme Court.
The Cherokee Indian Tribe was a recognized by treaty autonomous political entity within the United States. As such the Cherokee Indian tribe had certain legal rights to land property and protection of the law.
The State of Georgia passed the Indian removal act. This law stated that the State of Georgia had the right to force the Cherokee Nation to leave their land in Georgia that had been acknowledged to belong to the Cherokee Nation by treaties with the Federal Government.
The Cherokee Nation sued ( Worchester vs Georgia) the state of Georgia claiming the Indian Removal Act was unconstitutional and violated the protection under the law that the Cherokee Nation had. The Supreme Court ruled (correctly) that the Indian Removal Act was indeed unconstitutional. The Supreme Court ruling should have invalidated the State Law and prevented the Cherokee Nation from being forced from its lands and property.
Sadly President Andrew Jackson sided with the State of Georgia and used his executive power to send federal troops to enforce the law even after the Supreme Court had ruled the law unconstitutional. The State of Georgia was successful in removing the Cherokee Nation and taking over the gold field, forest, and rich farmlands that had belonged to the Cherokee Nation. The houses , schools, orchards, churches, and farms were confiscated and given to "greedy" white settlers. The Cherokee received semi desert land in Oklahoma in return.
The Cherokee were forced to march under armed guards in the middle of winter across Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas to their new "homes". Many died along the way, their livestock perished and the Cherokee nation was impoverished.
This case was important because it was an embarrassment to the ideals of American Democracy, that a ruling of the Supreme Court could be so completely ignored by the executive branch. The abuse of the Cherokee Nation by the state of Georgia with the support of the Federal government is one of the dark stains on the History of the United States.
George Washington played pivotal role in the French and Indian War including possibly being responsible for the start of the war.
George Washington was actively involved in the fighting around the confluence of the Ohio River. Conflict over control of the Ohio River Valley and particularly the point of the confluence of the Ohio River was the spark point of the French and Indian Wars and George Washington was the match.
British and French traders had come into conflict over the trade with the Indians in the Ohio River Valley. The land had been claimed first by the British Colony of Virginia. The French also claimed the land as part of French exploration of the Mississippi River as the Ohio flowed into the Mississippi.
In 1753 Washington was sent to warn the French to leave the area and spy out the French strength in the area. The French refused to leave or recognize the British claim to the area.
In 1754 on Washington's recommendation Virginia sent a team to build a fort at the confluence of the Ohio River. George Washington was to follow up with a military force to protect the fort. The French had sent a force of 800 men to secure the area. On learning of the fort being constructed the French forced the Virginians to leave. Washington with a force of about 160 men and Mingo Indian allies decided to advance.
Washington encountered a scouting party of the French sent to order him to leave the Ohio River Valley. Washington surrounded the French and attacked the party, killing Jumon the leader of the French forces. The French and British were not at war at the time so this was considered by the French to be an unprovoked attack which was the beginning of the French and Indian Wars and the seven year global war between the French their Indian allies and the British.
In 1755 Washington was part of General Braddock's failed expedition to retake the fort on the confluence from the French.
Braddock was decisively defeated at the Battle of Monogahela. Washington was instrumental to directing the successful retreat of the combined Virginia and British troops.
From 1755 -1758 Washington now a Colonel was the leader of the Virginia militia. Washington helped lead the successful attack which retook the French fort of Fort Duquesne at the Confluence, renamed Fort Pitt. Despite Washington's successes the British denied him a commission in the regular British Army and Washington resigned from further fighting in the French and Indian Wars.
It could be said that George Washington was responsible for the beginning of the French and Indian Wars and for the successful conclusion of the War in the Ohio River Valley.
God. ( or a higher power)
Both Locke and Jefferson believed that people were created with certain rights. These rights came from the creator not from men. Since men were born with these rights, no government or law of man could legitimately take these rights away.
The Declaration of Independence quoted above was written because the government of England led by King George III believed that the government had the right to take these rights away.
In the colonial charters the citizens of the American colonies had been granted the "rights of Englishmen" . King George regarded the colonies as essentially possessions of the Crown. As such the colonies were tenants of the Crown. Tenants have only the right that the rightful land owners grants them.
King George decided that in order to better collect the taxes needed to pay for the French and Indian Wars he would revoke the rights granted to the colonies in their Charters. King George dissolved the colonial legislatures, appointed royal governors in place of the locally elected governors and raised taxes unilaterally.
Jefferson argued that since the basic human rights came from the creator not the government or the King, that the King had no right to take away the rights of the colonists. The King disagreed and the American Revolution was fought over the question of: do governments have the ability to make laws that revoke basic human rights.?
It established the principle of judicial review.
John Adams and Congress created many new judge and justice of the peace positions just as he was leaving office and appointed men to them that would enforce his own view of law. He did this to frustrate the incoming president, Thomas Jefferson.
The justices of the peace couldn't start serving until they had their appointment commissions delivered by the new Secretary of State, James Madison, but Madison chose not to deliver those papers. One of the new justices was William Marbury, who sued Madison to force him to deliver his commission.
The Supreme Court ruled that Marbury was entitled to the commission, but could not order Madison to do so because the Judicial Act of 1789 which created the positions was unconstitutional and therefore was null and void.
This established the legal precedent which the United States follows to this day, that the courts have the right and authority to review laws passed by Congress to see if they conform to the Constitution.
It is a form of government where power is distributed at local/regional as well as national level
If we look at the American system, the Constitution and the creation of the USA very much reflected the struggle faced by the Americans in their quest for independence from Britain.
Thus power is spread out so that no one area of government becomes too powerful.
There is therefore the Federal Government in Washington DC. This comprises the Legislature- Congress, Executive- President and Judiciary- Supreme Court. The intention was to create a balance of power through the Separation of Powers. For example no member of the legislature can be a member of the Executive, unlike the British system.
As well as this each of the now 50 states has its own government structure in the form of Governors, state legislatures and state judicial systems. States' Rights and the independence of state powers is still a very important and sensitive part of the American political system.