Dear friends, Please read our latest blog post for an important announcement about the website. ❤, The Socratic Team
Harry S. Truman (I)
Thomas E. Dewey
J. Strom Thurmond
There they are.
Besides women entering the work force, The Great Migration of African Americans from the south helped maintain industrial output
The African American population of the south had been underemployed working for very poor wages or no wages at all in the share cropping schemes in the south. Many African Americans could little or no work in the south. The caste system and Jim Crow laws regulated much of the African American population to virtual slavery.
World War II blocked immigration from Europe that had supplied much of the labor force needed in the northern factories and industries. Many workers had volunteered or been drafted to fight in the war. The workers became soldiers leaving gaps in the factories.
Agricultural workers were not subject to the draft as agriculture was deemed essential to the war effort. Most of the African Americans in the south were agricultural workers and therefore not drafted. African Americans were discouraged from volunteering and enlisting in the armed forces because of racial prejudice.
There was a major population shift as African Americans that had been working as underpaid, and underemployed agricultural workers moved north to work in the factories during the war.
Many wartime factories had up to 50% of their workforce being migrant workers from the South. These hardworking African Americans filled the gaps left by the departing soldiers and kept the factories working during the war.
It was a case where the state and local governments ignored the rulings of the Supreme Court.
The Cherokee Indian Tribe was a recognized by treaty autonomous political entity within the United States. As such the Cherokee Indian tribe had certain legal rights to land property and protection of the law.
The State of Georgia passed the Indian removal act. This law stated that the State of Georgia had the right to force the Cherokee Nation to leave their land in Georgia that had been acknowledged to belong to the Cherokee Nation by treaties with the Federal Government.
The Cherokee Nation sued ( Worchester vs Georgia) the state of Georgia claiming the Indian Removal Act was unconstitutional and violated the protection under the law that the Cherokee Nation had. The Supreme Court ruled (correctly) that the Indian Removal Act was indeed unconstitutional. The Supreme Court ruling should have invalidated the State Law and prevented the Cherokee Nation from being forced from its lands and property.
Sadly President Andrew Jackson sided with the State of Georgia and used his executive power to send federal troops to enforce the law even after the Supreme Court had ruled the law unconstitutional. The State of Georgia was successful in removing the Cherokee Nation and taking over the gold field, forest, and rich farmlands that had belonged to the Cherokee Nation. The houses , schools, orchards, churches, and farms were confiscated and given to "greedy" white settlers. The Cherokee received semi desert land in Oklahoma in return.
The Cherokee were forced to march under armed guards in the middle of winter across Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas to their new "homes". Many died along the way, their livestock perished and the Cherokee nation was impoverished.
This case was important because it was an embarrassment to the ideals of American Democracy, that a ruling of the Supreme Court could be so completely ignored by the executive branch. The abuse of the Cherokee Nation by the state of Georgia with the support of the Federal government is one of the dark stains on the History of the United States.
George Washington played pivotal role in the French and Indian War including possibly being responsible for the start of the war.
George Washington was actively involved in the fighting around the confluence of the Ohio River. Conflict over control of the Ohio River Valley and particularly the point of the confluence of the Ohio River was the spark point of the French and Indian Wars and George Washington was the match.
British and French traders had come into conflict over the trade with the Indians in the Ohio River Valley. The land had been claimed first by the British Colony of Virginia. The French also claimed the land as part of French exploration of the Mississippi River as the Ohio flowed into the Mississippi.
In 1753 Washington was sent to warn the French to leave the area and spy out the French strength in the area. The French refused to leave or recognize the British claim to the area.
In 1754 on Washington's recommendation Virginia sent a team to build a fort at the confluence of the Ohio River. George Washington was to follow up with a military force to protect the fort. The French had sent a force of 800 men to secure the area. On learning of the fort being constructed the French forced the Virginians to leave. Washington with a force of about 160 men and Mingo Indian allies decided to advance.
Washington encountered a scouting party of the French sent to order him to leave the Ohio River Valley. Washington surrounded the French and attacked the party, killing Jumon the leader of the French forces. The French and British were not at war at the time so this was considered by the French to be an unprovoked attack which was the beginning of the French and Indian Wars and the seven year global war between the French their Indian allies and the British.
In 1755 Washington was part of General Braddock's failed expedition to retake the fort on the confluence from the French.
Braddock was decisively defeated at the Battle of Monogahela. Washington was instrumental to directing the successful retreat of the combined Virginia and British troops.
From 1755 -1758 Washington now a Colonel was the leader of the Virginia militia. Washington helped lead the successful attack which retook the French fort of Fort Duquesne at the Confluence, renamed Fort Pitt. Despite Washington's successes the British denied him a commission in the regular British Army and Washington resigned from further fighting in the French and Indian Wars.
It could be said that George Washington was responsible for the beginning of the French and Indian Wars and for the successful conclusion of the War in the Ohio River Valley.
God. ( or a higher power)
Both Locke and Jefferson believed that people were created with certain rights. These rights came from the creator not from men. Since men were born with these rights, no government or law of man could legitimately take these rights away.
The Declaration of Independence quoted above was written because the government of England led by King George III believed that the government had the right to take these rights away.
In the colonial charters the citizens of the American colonies had been granted the "rights of Englishmen" . King George regarded the colonies as essentially possessions of the Crown. As such the colonies were tenants of the Crown. Tenants have only the right that the rightful land owners grants them.
King George decided that in order to better collect the taxes needed to pay for the French and Indian Wars he would revoke the rights granted to the colonies in their Charters. King George dissolved the colonial legislatures, appointed royal governors in place of the locally elected governors and raised taxes unilaterally.
Jefferson argued that since the basic human rights came from the creator not the government or the King, that the King had no right to take away the rights of the colonists. The King disagreed and the American Revolution was fought over the question of: do governments have the ability to make laws that revoke basic human rights.?
It established the principle of judicial review.
John Adams and Congress created many new judge and justice of the peace positions just as he was leaving office and appointed men to them that would enforce his own view of law. He did this to frustrate the incoming president, Thomas Jefferson.
The justices of the peace couldn't start serving until they had their appointment commissions delivered by the new Secretary of State, James Madison, but Madison chose not to deliver those papers. One of the new justices was William Marbury, who sued Madison to force him to deliver his commission.
The Supreme Court ruled that Marbury was entitled to the commission, but could not order Madison to do so because the Judicial Act of 1789 which created the positions was unconstitutional and therefore was null and void.
This established the legal precedent which the United States follows to this day, that the courts have the right and authority to review laws passed by Congress to see if they conform to the Constitution.
It is a form of government where power is distributed at local/regional as well as national level
If we look at the American system, the Constitution and the creation of the USA very much reflected the struggle faced by the Americans in their quest for independence from Britain.
Thus power is spread out so that no one area of government becomes too powerful.
There is therefore the Federal Government in Washington DC. This comprises the Legislature- Congress, Executive- President and Judiciary- Supreme Court. The intention was to create a balance of power through the Separation of Powers. For example no member of the legislature can be a member of the Executive, unlike the British system.
As well as this each of the now 50 states has its own government structure in the form of Governors, state legislatures and state judicial systems. States' Rights and the independence of state powers is still a very important and sensitive part of the American political system.
Clear undisputed rights to Texas, and California as well as the areas of Arizona , New Mexico, and parts of Nevada, and Utah
Before the Mexican American war Mexico still protested the legality of the claims of California and Texas to be independent "nations" from Mexico. When America annexed Texas as a state Mexico protested the legality of the annexation claiming ( correctly) that Texas was a province of Mexico that was in a state of rebellion.
At the end of the war Mexico was forced to sign a peace agreement recognizing the annexations of Texas and California to the United States. Also Mexico ceded its claims to the Southwest giving up claims to Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Nevada and Utah. The Gladstone purchase was a nominal fee for a strip of land completing the access to California through land previously owned by Mexico.
The Mexican American war added vast valuable territory to the United States. The War stripped these territories from Mexico.
Yes it was reasonable
Communism had conquered China with its vast population. the soviet union had extended its communistic control over most of Eastern Europe. Communist rebels were threatening to take over Greece by force. A strong Communist party in France seemed to have an excellent chance of winning elections in the post world war II elections.
The quasi religious utopia promised by the Communists had great emotional appeal. The communist control militaries of China and the Soviet Union were the largest in the world. The Communist had shown (and would show) that they were more than willing to use military force to speed the ideology of Communism.
At the end of world war II in the 1940s it seemed an open question if communism would take over and rule the entire world or if the western democracies would be able to contain the spread of communism.
The Navigation Acts benefited England in that the colonies had to purchase imports only brought by English ships and could only sale their products to England.
The Navigation Acts only benefited England. The Acts added costs to all the items that the colonies had wanted to import. Instead of the prices being controlled by competition with other importers English merchants could charge what ever the market could support. If merchants from other nations had be able to bring goods to the colonies the prices for imports would have been lower.
The Navigation Acts hurt the colonies economic development. Manufactured goods from the colonies could not compete with manufactured goods produced in England. First England could charge tariffs on the manufactured goods from the colonies. Also the colonies could not attempt to sale their goods to other nations and developing colonies. Mexico, Brazil, and other colonies would have been interested in buying the colonies, guns, glass, rum, and other products. Under the Navigation Acts these could only be sold to England.
The raw materials produced by the colonies could only be sold to England. Tobacco grown in the colonies could only be sold to English merchants that then could resale the tobacco for a profit to France, Germany and other European markets. The same unfair practices applied to lumber, furs, and cotton.
The Navigation Acts were all for the benefit of the "mother country" There was no benefit to the colonies.