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Use magnetic field.
If you shoot charge particles perpendicular to magnetic field that is pointing upward (from the floor to ceiling), positive charges get deflected to the right, and negative charges to the left. Those that carries no net charge (neutral), go straight through.
We just happened to call right deflecting particles positive, those in the opposite way negative. We could have name positive negative or vice versa. You can call positive yang and negative yin if you like. Their behaviors in magnetic field will be exactly the same.
Another way to tell positive of negative is to have a standard material that you already know its polarity. So those attract to it must have opposite charge, repel by it the same charge. See this example.
They are similar, in that they both have an inverse square relationship with distance, but Newton’s ULG concerns the effect mass has on other mass, and Coulomb’s law does the same for charges.
Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation shows that mass is (very weakly) attracted to other masses, but because the value of the constant in this relationship (G) is very small, the effect is negligible until we consider masses in the billions of kilograms (moons, planets, stars etc.)
Newton didn’t explain everything in gravity - he would not even attempt to explain why mass should do this (hypothesis non fingo) nor did he find a value for G (that was Cavendish in 1798.) There also remains (unsolved) the reason why there is only ever an attractive force between masses (expressed as a negative sign in the equation, so that the force,
The equation that bears Coulomb’s name is very similar in form, but allows for both positive (repulsive) and negative (attractive) force vectors between charges, as charges can be both of the same sign in charge (repulsive forces) or dissimilar (attractive forces between opposing charges.) In effect, Coulomb’s law is a version of Gauss’s law.
There is generally a factor of
For reference, the two equations (in scalar form) are,
There are multiple experimentally determined facts that indicate the shell-like structure of the atomic nucleus. Some of them are listed below :
1) Nuclei with Z and N (or both) equal to 2, 8, 28, 20, 50, 82 and 126 are extra stable. These numbers are called the magic numbers and this stability variation is analogous to stability of 2, 8, 18, 32 etc electrons in electronic shells.
2) Nuclei with N = a magic number have smaller neutron absorption cross section as compared to their immediate neighbours indicating a more stable nucleus for those values of N.
3) The electric quadrapole moment is zero for a nucleus with N or Z equal to a magic number indicating the spherical symmetry analogous to that in closed shells of atoms.
4) Nuclear species with one neutron excess of a magic number readily emit a single neutron indicating that the extra neutron is loosely bound to the rest of the nucleus.
5) Nuclei with magic number of nucleons of a particular type have more number of stable isotopes and isotones.
No. AC is much more efficient for transmission over long distances than DC, because AC allows you to use transformers step up the voltage for transmission and step down the voltage at the load.
Let's consider a simple case that I will deliberately make a "best case" scenario.
An industrial customer was a facility 10 km away from your power plant that requires
Your power lines have the incredibly low resistance of
If you choose DC, the current in the power lines must be the same as the current in the load, we can use
Compute the resistance of the power lines
NOTE: The factor 2 is required, because you need a 2 wires to make a complete circuit, one out and one back.
We can use
Using DC, you loose 9.6 times the power that you deliver.
Lets consider the AC solution where you step of the voltage to
It is easy to obtain a transformer with an efficiency of
Compute the power lost in the same two transmission lines:
Compute the power lost in the step up transformer:
Using the step up / step down transformer, you loose approximately
Let the initial velocity of the projectile be
To calculate the time of flight we use the kinematic expression
Now the kinetic energy of the projectile at the time of projection is provided by the potential energy of the compressed spring. We know that
#m#is mass of the projectile, #k#is the spring constant and #x#is the compression of the spring.
Equating both we get
Inserting various values we get
Given expression for velocity of a particle by
Comparing with kinematic expression
#u=-2\ ms^-1and a=1\ ms^-2#
(1). Kinematic expression for displacement is
Inserting given conditions we get the expression for displacement
(2). From (2)
(3). From (2)
Solving the quadratic by split the middle term we get
#t=-8 and 12#,
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