# Question #03339

Jan 3, 2016

a) Molality and d) mole fraction are not affected by temperature.

#### Explanation:

a) Molality

$\text{Molality" = "moles of solute"/"kilograms of solute}$

Both moles and kilograms are measures of mass, and mass does not change with temperature.

∴ Molality is not affected by temperature.

b) Molarity

$\text{Molarity" = "moles of solute"/"litres of solution}$

The volume of a liquid changes with temperature, so molarity is affected by temperature.

c) Normality

$\text{Normality" = "equivalents of solute"/"litres of solution}$

Normality depends on the volume of solution, so normality is affected by temperature.

d) Mole fraction

$\text{Mole fraction" = "moles of component"/"total moles}$

Moles do not change with temperature, so mole fraction is not affected by temperature.