How did the element Uranium get its name?
In tribute to the discovery of Uranus.
It was named by its discoverer (which is the usual practice - the discoverer gets to name the discovery), Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789. Uranus had been discovered eight years prior by William Herschel and Klaproth named the element in tribute to the discovery of Uranus:
I have chosen that of uranite, (Uranium), as a kind of memorial, that the chemical discovery of this new metal happened in the period of the astronomical discovery of the new planet Uranus.