Physically, we do that often with X-ray crystallography.
Chemically, we may already have that information, but that information is usually determined by examination of similar chemical bonds by crystallography as well.
With crystallography we take a picture of the molecules and measure the distance between atoms. That tells us the relative position of the atoms, although the strength of a bond is not always proportional to its distance between atoms.
Bond strengths are measured by other experiments that measure the energy required to break a particular atomic bond.