# What are the oxidation states of the elements, and how are these assigned in compounds?

Jun 27, 2017

Oxidation states for the elements?

#### Explanation:

The oxidation state of a neutral element is ZERO............

$1.$ $\text{The oxidation number of a free element is always 0.}$

$2.$ $\text{The oxidation number of a mono-atomic ion is equal}$ $\text{to the charge of the ion.}$

$3.$ $\text{For a given bond, X-Y, the bond is split to give } {X}^{+}$ $\text{and}$ ${Y}^{-}$, $\text{where Y is more electronegative than X.}$

$4.$ $\text{The oxidation number of H is +1, but it is -1 in when}$ $\text{combined with less electronegative elements.}$

$5.$ $\text{The oxidation number of O in its}$ compounds $\text{is usually -2, but it is -1 in peroxides.}$

$6.$ $\text{The oxidation number of a Group 1 element}$ $\text{in a compound is +1.}$

$7.$ $\text{The oxidation number of a Group 2 element in}$ $\text{a compound is +2.}$

$8.$ $\text{The oxidation number of a Group 17 element in a binary compound is -1.}$

$9.$ $\text{The sum of the oxidation numbers of all of the atoms}$ $\text{in a neutral compound is 0.}$

$10.$ $\text{The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion}$ $\text{is equal to the charge of the ion.}$

For a simple oxidation reaction, the combustion of coal, we can write the following redox reaction,,,,,,,

$\stackrel{0}{C} \left(s\right) + {\stackrel{0}{O}}_{2} \left(g\right) \rightarrow \stackrel{- I I}{O} = \stackrel{+ I V}{C} = \stackrel{- I I}{O} \left(g\right)$

For the elements in their compounds, the maximum oxidation state expressed is the Group Number of that element........