A08 has made a comment (entirely correct)below, but as it is hard to know what level you are at, I’ll give a simple response (suitable for 16-19 learners meeting this for the first time.)
We differentiate to find a gradient, often differentiating with respect to time as many variables are plotted graphically against time. Gradients are very useful for discovering the relationship between our two variables.
We integrate to find an area under the line (or curve) on our graph as the product of the two variables (the area) often has meaning for us (e.g. when graphing force vs. time, the area underneath the line represents the impulse =
Does that help?