Chaucer’s characterizations of the Prioress, the Monk, and others connected with the Church are mainly what?
England, in Chaucer's time, was steeped in a traditional Catholic culture. Everyone would have known the various types of clergy and how they should behave. Of course, being human, some of these representatives of the Church fell short of the ideal, some very far short.
Satire depends on making a comparison between what should be with what actually is the case. Chaucer treats each of of his characters individually (not only the clergy). His satire ranges from the gentlest poking of fun (as in the case of the prioress) to the most savage (as in the case of the pardoner).