How can I remember functional groups in organic chemistry?

1 Answer
Oct 27, 2014

When I memorized the functional groups in organic chemistry, I made a table and put them into groups.

The ones I put in the table were as follows:
These compounds contain two double-bonded carbon atoms, with four R side chains branching off of them.

These compounds are hydrocarbons containing only hydrogen and carbon, and all bonds within the molecule are single bonds.

Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond between carbon atoms.

Alcohols are molecules that contain a carbon bonded to an OH group, and three R group side chains branching off it.

Alkyl Halide:
Alkyl halides are molecules much like alcohols, except instead of an OH group bonded to the carbon, there is a halogen in its place. Halogens are in group seven in the periodic table, and can be any one of the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine or astatine.

Amines consist of a nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons, bonded to a hydrogen and two R group side chains.

Nitriles are composed of a carbon atom triple bonded to a nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. Inorganic compounds containing this group are not called nitriles; instead, these compounds are called cyanides, though nitrile compounds are not nearly as toxic as cyanides.

Aldehydes, carboxylic acid, amides, ketones and esters all contain the same base; an R group side chain bonded to a carbon, double bonded to an oxygen. What makes each compound unique is the group that is bonded onto the carbon atom.

In aldehydes, this is a carbon, in carboxylic acid it is an OH group, amides contain a nitrogen with two more groups bonded onto it. Ketones contain another R group side chain, ethers contain an oxygen bonded to two R group side chains, and esters contain an oxygen bonded to one R group side chain.