How did Charles Martel affect the development of feudalism?
Charles Martel started feudalism as a means of defeating the Islamic armies invading France
Charles Martel defeated the Islamic armies at the battle of Tours in 732. This was the first defeat of the Islamic armies since the establishment of the Islamic Empire 100 years earlier.
Charles Martel persuaded the free Frankish tribesmen to give up a great degree of their freedom to support a professional standing army to defend against the aggression and expansion of Islamic Empire.
in 711 the Muslim armies had defeated and conquered Spain. The people of Spain became second class citizens in their own country.
The people of France were frighten enough of the Islamic armies to become peasants supporting a professional class of warriors.
The freedom that the people gave up would become the basis of the feudal system. The peasants would work hard to provide the resources to mount knights and armored soldiers capable of protecting them. The knights and professional solders would in turn provide protection to the peasants.
Without the threat of Islamic conquest, it is possible that the feudal system would have never gotten started.
The feudal system was an answer to how much freedom will a people give up for safety and security. American face a similar question about how much freedom are Americans willing to give up to the government in order to be taken care of by the government.