# KNOWLEDGE INFERENCE UNIT3 Syllabus Knowledge representation Production based

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KNOWLEDGE INFERENCE UNIT-3

Syllabus Knowledge representation Production based system Frame based system Inference – Backward chaining, Forward chaining Rule value approach Fuzzy reasoning Certainty factors Bayesian Theory-Bayesian Network Dempster - Shafer theory.

Knowledge Representation

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND INFERENCE What is knowledge representation (KR) Knowledge representation languages Approaches to KR Semantic networks Frames Predicate Logic Production Rules 4

KNOWLEDGE Knowledge is the collection of facts, inference rules etc. which can be used for a particular purpose. Knowledge requires the use of data and information. It combines relationships, correlations, dependencieswith data and information. The basic components of knowledge are: 1) A set of collected data 2) A form of belief or hypothesis 3) A kind of information. 5

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KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION (KR) Knowledge representation is the most important ingredient for developing an AI. layer between information accessible from outside world and high level thinking processes. Knowledge representation refers to the data structures techniques and organizing notations that are used in AI. These include semantic networks, frames, logic, production rules and conceptual graphs. 7

Properties for knowledge Representation The following properties should be possessed by a knowledge representation system. a. Representational Adequacy: It is the ability to represent the required knowledge. b. Inferential Adequacy: It is the ability to manipulate the knowledge represented to produce new knowledge corresponding to that inferred from the original. c. Inferential Efficiency: The ability to direct the inferential mechanisms into the most productive directions by storing appropriate guides. d. Acquisitional Efficiency: The ability to acquire new knowledge using automatic methods wherever possible rather than reliance on human intervention. 8

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Types of Knowledge Representation Knowledge can be represented in different ways. Different knowledge representation techniques are a. Logic b. Semantic Network c. Frame d. Production rules e. Conceptual Dependency f. Script 10

First Order Predicate Logic • FOPL has a well defined syntax and semantics, • It is concerned with truth preserving inference. Problems : time, beliefs and uncertainty are difficult to represent 11

Semantic Network • Represent factual knowledge about classes of objects and their properties • Not formal systems. • Basic inference mechanism: inheritance of properties Problems: quantifiers, representing disjunction and negation 12

For example: Ram is a boy. 13

Semantic Nets A semantic net is represented as a graph, where the nodes in the graph represent concepts, and the arcs represent binary relationships between concepts. Nodes represent objects, attributes and values Links represent attributes and relationships between nodes Labels attached to links: the name of the corresponding attribute or relation 14

animal Is_a Has part reptile mammal head Is_a elephant Is_instance_of Clyde 15

Production rules Production based systems: (rule based system) a set of if-then rules - typically state that if certain conditions hold, then some action should be taken. If -then relation: If high_temperature then prescribe aspirin Production systems use a working memory represents the facts (as semantic nets or frames) that are currently believed to hold. 16

If : condtn-1 & condition -2 condition -3 Then : take action -4 IF: the temperature is greater than 200 degrees and water level is low THEN: open the safety valve. Each rule represents a small knowledge relating to the given domain to expertise. A no. of relative rules collectively may correspond to a chain of inferences which leads from some initially known facts to some useful conclusions. 17

Inference is accomplished by a process of chaining through rules in forward or backward direction, until conclusion or failure is reached. Selection of rules is determined by matching current facts against the domain knowledge or variables in rules and choosing among a candidate set of rules. Inference process is carried out in an iterative mode with the user providing parameters needed to complete the rule chaining process. 18

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Frames(frame based system) Proposed in 1968 by Marvin Minsky All the information relevant to a particular concept is stored in a single complex entity, called a frame. Frames support inheritance. Frames can be viewed as a structural representation of semantic nets. 20

Mammal subclass: Animal warm_blooded: yes Elephant subclass: * colour: * size: Mammal grey large Clyde instance: color: owner: Elephant pink Fred Example 21

Syntax of a frame 22

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Components of a Frame Entity Name - correspond to a node in a semantic net Attributes or slots filled with particular values E. G. in the frame for Clyde, instance is the name of a slot, and elephant is the value of the slot. • Names of slots correspond to the links in semantic nets • Values of slots correspond to nodes. Hence each slot can be another frame. 24

Size: instance: Slot single_valued: yes range: Size-set Example Owner: instance: single_valued: range: Slot no Person Fred: instance: occupation: Person Elephant-breeder 25

Inheritance If a slot is not defined for a given frame, we look at the parent-class slot with the same name Simple if single parent-class several parent classes : multiple inheritance problem (e. g. , Clyde is both an elephant and a circus-animal) Choose which parent to inherit from first. 26

Applications Classifying new instances of familiar entities (objects/events/places/tasks) Anticipating the attributes of such instances Inferring the presence and properties of their parts or participants 27

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Inference engine performs 2 major tasks: 1) examines existing facts and rules and adds new facts when possible 2) decides the order in which inferences are made. Infer means " to derive as a conclusion from facts or premises". There are 2 common rules for deriving new facts from rules and known facts. These are 1. 2. Modus Ponens Modus Tollens 30

MODUS PONENS most common inference strategy simple , reasoning based on it is easily understood. The rule states that when A is known to be true and if a rule states " If A then B " it is valid to conclude that B is true 31

MODUS TOLLENS When B is false rule If A, then B then A is false. E. g: Rule : IF Ahmet's CAR IS DIRTY THEN Ahmet HAS BEEN DRIVING OUTSIDE ANKARA Given fact : Ahmet has not been outside Ankara. New rule : Ahmet car is not dirty. This conclusion seems quite obvious but cannot be reached by most expert systems. Because they use modus ponens for deriving new facts from rules. 32

There are two problems addressed by the inference engine: 1) It must have a way to decide where to start. Rules and facts reside in a static knowledge base. There must be a way for the reasoning process to begin. 2) The inference engine must resolve conflicts that occur when alternative links of reasoning emerge. The system may reach a point where there are more than a few rules ready to fire. The inference engine must choose which rule to examine next. 33

TYPES OF INFERENCE There are two inferencing methods. These are Forward and Backward Chaining 34

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FORWARD CHAINING Problem: Does situation Z exists or not ? The first rule that fires is A->D because A is already in the database. Next we infer D. Existence of C and D causes second rule to fire and as a consequence F is inferred and placed in the database. This in turn, causes the third rule F&B->Zto fire, placing Z in the database. This technique is called forward chaining. 36

A very simple Forward chaining Algorithm Given m facts F 1, F 2, . . , Fm? N RULES R 1, R 2, . . . Rn repeat for i ? - 1 to n do if one or more current facts match the antecedent of Ri then 1 ) add the new fact(s) define by the consequent 2 ) flag the rule that has been fired 3 ) increase m until no new facts have been produced. 37

EXAMPLE Rule 1 IF the car overheats , THEN the car will stall. Rule 2 IF the car stalls THEN it will cost me money AND I will be late getting home Now, the question is How do you arrive at conclusion that this situation will cost money and cause you to be late ? The condition that triggers the chain of events is the car overheating 38

BACKWARD CHAINING Backward Chaining (Example 1) Rule 1 IF the car is not tuned AND the battery is weak THEN not enough current will reach the starter. Rule 2 IF not enough current reaches the starter THEN the car will not start. Given facts: The car is not tuned The battery is weak. Now, the question is How would you arrive at the conditions that have resulted inthe car failing to start? 39

In such a situation backward chaining might be more cost effective. With this inference method the system starts with what it wants to prove, e. g. , that situation Z exists, and only executes rules that are relevant to establishing it. Figure following shows how backward chaining would work using the rules from the forward chaining example. 40

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step 1 the system is told to establish (if it can) that situation Z exists, It first checks the data base for Z, and when that fails, searches for rules that conclude Z, i. e. , have Z on the right side of the arrow. It finds the rule F&B->Z, and decides that it must establish F and B in order to conclude Z. step 2 the system tries to establish F, first checking the data base and then finding a rule that concludes F. From this rule, C&D->F, the system decides it must establish C and D to conclude F. steps 3 through 5 the system finds C in the data base but decides it must establish A before it can conclude D. It then finds A in the data base. 42

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steps 6 through 8 the system executes the third rule to establish D, then executes the second rule to establish the original goal, Z. The inference chain created here is identical to the one created by forward chaining. The difference in two approaches hinges on the method in which data and rules are searched. 44

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Fuzzy reasoning 48

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Fuzzy Logic Systems(FLS) Produce definite output in response to incomplete, ambiguous, distorted, or inaccurate fuzzy input. What is Fuzzy Logic? Fuzzy Logic FL is a method of reasoning that resembles human reasoning. The approach of FL imitates the way of decision making in humans that involves all intermediate possibilities between digital values YES and NO. unlike computers, the human decision making includes a range of possibilities between YES and NO, such as − CERTAINLY YES POSSIBLY YES CANNOT SAY POSSIBLY NO CERTAINLY NO The fuzzy logic works on the levels of possibilities of input to achieve the definite output. 50

Implementation It can be implemented in systems with various sizes and capabilities ranging from small micro-controllers to large, networked, workstation-based control systems. It can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both. Why Fuzzy Logic? Fuzzy logic is useful for commercial and practical purposes. It can control machines and consumer products. It may not give accurate reasoning, but acceptable reasoning. Fuzzy logic helps to deal with the uncertainty in 51 engineering.

Fuzzy Logic Systems Architecture 52

It has four main parts as shown − 1. Fuzzification Module 2. Knowledge Base 3. Inference Engine 4. Defuzzification Module Fuzzification Module Ø It transforms the system inputs, which are crisp numbers, into fuzzy sets. Ø It splits the input signal into five steps such as − LP x is Large Positive MP x is Medium Positive S x is Small MN x is Medium Negative LN x is Large Negative 53

Knowledge Base − It stores IF-THEN rules provided by experts. Inference Engine − It simulates the human reasoning process by making fuzzy inference on the inputs and IF-THEN rules. Defuzzification Module − It transforms the fuzzy set obtained by the inference engine into a crisp value. 54

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Membership Function Membership functions allow to quantify linguistic term and represent a fuzzy set graphically. A membership function for a fuzzy set A on the universe of discourse X is defined as μA: X → [0, 1]. Here, each element of X is mapped to a value between 0 and 1. It is called membership value or degree of membership. It quantifies the degree of membership of the element in X to the fuzzy set A. x axis represents the universe of discourse. y axis represents the degrees of membership in the [0, 1] interval. There can be multiple membership functions applicable to fuzzify a numerical value. 56

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Application Areas of Fuzzy Logic Automotive Systems Automatic Gearboxes Four-Wheel Steering Vehicle environment control Consumer Electronic Goods Hi-Fi Systems Photocopiers Still and Video Cameras Television Domestic Goods Microwave Ovens Refrigerators Toasters Vacuum Cleaners Washing Machines Environment Control Air Conditioners/Dryers/Heaters Humidifiers 67

Advantages of FLSs Mathematical concepts within fuzzy reasoning are very simple. can modify a FLS by just adding or deleting rules due to flexibility of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic Systems can take imprecise, distorted, noisy input information. FLSs are easy to construct and understand. Fuzzy logic is a solution to complex problems in all fields of life, including medicine, as it resembles human reasoning and decision making. Disadvantages of FLSs There is no systematic approach to fuzzy system designing. They are understandable only when simple. 68

Probability 69

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Bayesian theory

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Bayesian Networks

Why This Matters Bayesian networks have been the most important contribution to the field of AI in the last 10 years Provide a way to represent knowledge in an uncertain domain and a way to reason about this knowledge Many applications: medicine, factories, help desks, spam filtering, etc. 85

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A Bayesian Network B P(B) E P(E) false 0. 999 false 0. 998 true 0. 001 true 0. 002 Burglary A Bayesian network is made up of two parts: 1. A directed acyclic graph 2. A set of parameters Earthquake Alarm B E A P(A|B, E) false 0. 999 false true 0. 001 false true false 0. 71 false true 0. 29 true false 0. 06 true false true 0. 94 true false 0. 05 true 0. 95

A Directed Acyclic Graph Burglary Earthquake Alarm 1. A directed acyclic graph: The nodes are random variables (which can be discrete or continuous) Arrows connect pairs of nodes (X is a parent of Y if there is an arrow from node X to node Y). 88

A Directed Acyclic Graph Burglary Earthquake Alarm Intuitively, an arrow from node X to node Y means X has a direct influence on Y (we can say X has a casual effect on Y) Easy for a domain expert to determine these relationships The absence/presence of arrows will be made more precise later on 89

A Set of Parameters B P(B) E P(E) false 0. 999 false 0. 998 true 0. 001 true 0. 002 B E A P(A|B, E) false 0. 999 false true 0. 001 false true false 0. 71 false true 0. 29 true false 0. 06 true false true 0. 94 true false 0. 05 true 0. 95 90 Burglary Earthquake Alarm

A Set of Parameters Conditional Probability Distribution for Alarm B E A P(A|B, E) false 0. 999 false true 0. 001 false true false 0. 71 false true 0. 29 true false 0. 06 true false true 0. 94 true false 0. 05 true 0. 95 Stores the probability distribution for Alarm given the values of Burglary and Earthquake For a given combination of values of the parents (B and E in this example), the entries for P(A=true|B, E) and P(A=false|B, E) must add up to 1 eg. P(A=true|B=false, E=false) + P(A=false|B=false, E=false)=1

Semantics of Bayesian Networks Two ways to view Bayes nets: 1. A representation of a joint probability distribution 2. An encoding of a collection of conditional independence statements 92

Bayesian Network Example Weather Cavity Toothache Catch P(A|B, C) = P(A|C) I(Tooth. Ache, Catch|Cavity) • Weather is independent of the other variables, I(Weather, Cavity) or P(Weather) = P(Weather|Cavity) = P(Weather|Catch) = P(Weather|Toothache) • Toothache and Catch are conditionally independent given Cavity • I(Toothache, Catch|Cavity) meaning P(Toothache|Catch, Cavity) = P(Toothache|Cavity) 93

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Dempster –Shafer Theory(DST)

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Advantages of DST The difficult problem of specifying priors can be avoided In addition to uncertainty, also ignorance can be expressed It is straightforward to express pieces of evidence with different levels of abstraction Dempster’s combination rule can be used to combine pieces of evidence Disadvantages of DST Potential computational complexity problems It lacks a well-established decision theory 117

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS PART-B Define knowledge? What is meant by knowledge representation? List out the properties of knowledge representation? List out the various knowledge representation schemes (or) types of knowledge? 5. What is meant by first order logic (FOL)? 6. Define semantic network? 7. Define Production based systems (rule based system)? 8. What are the advantages & disadvantages of Production based systems? 9. Define Frames? Give the structure of Frame? 10. What is meant by Frame based system? 1. 2. 3. 4. 118

11. What are the advantages & disadvantages of frame based systems? 12. Define inference? 13. Define modus ponens? 14. What is meant by Inference cycle? 15. What are the types of inference (or) inference technique(or) inference strategy? 16. Define forward chaining (Goal driven Reasoning)? Give example. 17. Define backward chaining (Data driven Reasoning)? Give example. 18. What is meant by fuzzy logic (fuzzy reasoning)? ** 19. Define fuzzy logic system (FLS)? 119

20. Define member function (MF)? 21. What are the applications of fuzzy logic? 22. What are the advantages & disadvantages of fuzzy logic? 23. Define probability? 24. Define conditional probability? 25. Define certainty factor? 26. Define Bayesian (or)Bayes’s theorem(or) Bayesian reasoning (or)Bayes’s (or) Bayes’s law? ** 27. Define Bayesian network (or)Bayes nets(or) Bayesian Belief network(BBNs) (or) Belief network(or) Casual probabilistic Networks(CPNs)? ** 28. Define Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST)? 120

PART-A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Explain in detail fuzzy logic(or) fuzzy reasoning (or) fuzzy logic system (FLS) with example? ****** Explain in detail Bayesian (or)Bayes’s theorem(or) Bayesian reasoning (or)Bayes’s (or) Bayes’s law with example? ****** Explain Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) with example? ***** Define inference? Explain the various inference strategies (technique) with example? **** Explain frame based system with example? **** Explain Production based systems (rule based system or rule value approach) with example? **** Explain in detail Bayesian network (or)Bayes nets(or) Bayesian Belief network(BBNs) (or) Belief network(or) Casual probabilistic Networks(CPNs) with example ? **** Explain in detail knowledge representation with example? 121

FIRST PEFERENCE FUZZY REASONING**** BAYESIAN THEORY**** DEMPSTER-SHAFER THEORY(DST)***** INFERENCE-FORWARD & BACKWARD CHAINING*** FRAME BASED SYSTEM**** PROUCTION BASED SYSTEM** BAYESIAN NETWORK*** 122

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