How is molecular data being used to study gasses present in the sun?
The solar chemical composition is a fundamental yardstick in astronomy. (see Ref. below)
Analyses of the solar photospheric chemical composition make use of the elemental fingerprints present in the solar spectrum in the form of spectral absorption lines.
“The solar chemical composition is a fundamental yardstick in astronomy, to which the elemental abundances of essentially all cosmic objects, be they planets, stars, nebulae or galaxies, are anchored. The importance of having accurate solar elemental abundances can thus not be overstated.”
“A critical ingredient in any solar abundance analysis is of course the atomic and molecular line input data.”
A paper on “The chemical composition of the Sun” from which the above quotes were taken is here:
“A Quantitative Analysis of the Solar Composition Problem” is here: