How would the United States work and look socially and politically if the Articles of Confederation was still operating today?
The United States would have collapsed before 1800.
The Articles of Confederation were a stopgap measure. They were only meant for the interim period during the war and the several years that followed as a basis for government until a constitution could be written. The delegates knew to a man, almost from the beginning, that a new set of laws had to be set up. The idea of a Constitution as the basis for government is not original to the United States. England already had something of a constitution.
The Articles of Confederation were so weak that they did not provide to a means of taxation to support a central government and to that end, did not even define what a central government should look like. They were more like rules of conduct for the 13 colonies to follow until a stable government was formed.