If Earth was the size of Jupiter, would humans be able to survive?
Probably, but then it would make our lives very difficult. But over time our body would have adapted according to that.
The enormous pressure and gravity would make life very different and difficult for humans as well as other living beings.
The temperature would also differ too, i.e. the climate would be much colder. It would actually take a "substantial" amount of time for information to move from one side of the planet to the other only 0.7 seconds.
The Earth would also have an increase in the gravitational force. And it would also move faster as compared to now. The atmospheric composition would also differ. It would have an enormously thick atmosphere, like Venus, and suffer a runaway greenhouse effect.
It would also have many moons. The giant moons would spin so fast that it would make the gravity different in the poles and the equator.