# If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y outer atoms, and Z lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y- :X: -Y could be abbreviated as XY_2Z_2. How would you classify these structures by the hybridization of the central atom?

Dec 6, 2016

The hybridization about the central atom $X$ would be $s {p}^{3}$ hybridization.

#### Explanation:

Two lone pair on the central and two species bonded to the central atom in the species would constitute tetrahedral electronic structure and bent molecular geometry , with bond angles less than $109.5$ degrees.

There are 4 electron clouds around the central atom, so the hybridization is $s {p}^{3}$.

A similar species $Y - X - Y$ with no lone pair about the species would have $s p$ hybridization.

Let $s$ = the number of $\sigma$ bond about the species.
Count the $\sigma$ bonds about the species (including dative bonds) and subtract one to attain the $s {p}^{s}$ hybridization.

In other words: $s {p}^{s - 1}$ for $s$$\sigma$ bonds. Factor in any lone pair about the central atom.

Keep in mind for a species with a greater number of electron (larger atoms), we will have to start to consider the $d$ orbitals, especially those species which can become hypervalent which occur after the $n = 2$ shell.