Is abnormal bulging of a vessel known as a/an atherosclerosis, aneurysm, or plaque?
The abnormal bulging of a vessel is known as an aneurysm. The wall of vessels consist of multiple layers. When one layer is damaged a sac protruding from the vessel can form due to the pressure of blood, this is what they mean by 'bulging'.
Aneurysms are often caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaques forms in a vessel. This condition hardens the vessel wall, making it less flexible and more prone to tearing. This is then called an arteriosclerotic or atherosclerotic aneurysm, most commonly found in the abdominal aorta.