# Show all the steps to how 3-chloroaniline can synthesis from benzene ?

Aug 9, 2018
1. nitration of benzene
2. chlorination of nitrobenzene
3. reduction of nitro group

#### Explanation:

Here's what the question is asking:

The synthesis will involve adding 2 substituents to the benzene ring. In this case, we'll need to consider the order of substitution.

• Cl is an ortho-para director . That means, if Cl is first added to benzene, the next substituent will be placed in the ortho/para position. That, will not work since, in the desired product, $N {H}_{2}$ is meta to Cl.
• That means, we'll need to add Cl last.
• $N {H}_{2}$ is also an ortho-para director , so that means we can't add Cl after forming aniline.

An alternative we can consider is:

1. First add nitro group ($N {O}_{2}$) to the benzene ring to form nitrobenzene through nitration of benzene.
2. Since nitro group is a meta director , we can then add Cl through chlorination .
3. After that, we can reduce the $N {O}_{2}$ group to $N {H}_{2}$ group.

Here's a possible synthesis you can consider: