What are the four kinds of nominative and objective case of nouns?
A nominative noun functions as:
subject of a sentence
subject of a clause
An objective noun functions as:
direct object of a verb
indirect object of a verb
object of a preposition
The subject of the sentence is the person or thing that is or does something. Example:
Mom made the cake.
-- The noun 'mom' is the one performing the action.
A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb but is not a complete thought, not a complete sentence.
The subject of the clause is also a person or thing that is or does something. Example:
Mom made the cake that Jim likes.
-- The noun 'Jim' is the subject of the clause 'that Jim likes'.
A subject complement (also called a predicate nominative) is a noun that follows a linking verb to restate the subject of the sentence.
A linking verb acts as an equal sign, the subject is or becomes the object. Example:
Chocolate is Jim's favorite.
-- The noun 'chocolate' is the subject of the sentence; the noun 'favorite' is the subject complement: chocolate = favorite.
A direct object is the noun that is the direct recipient of the action of a verb. Example:
Mom made the cake.
-- The noun 'cake' is the direct object, what mom made.
An indirect object is the noun that is an indirect recipient of the action of the verb. Example:
Mom made Jim a cake.
-- The noun 'Jim' is an indirect recipient of the action.
The object of a preposition is a noun that follows a preposition which connects it to another word in the sentence. Example:
Mom made a cake for Jim.
-- The noun Jim is the object of the preposition 'for', telling how Jim relates to the cake.
An object complement is a noun that follows a direct object that restates the direct object. Example:
Mom made Jim's favorite cake, chocolate.
-- The noun 'chocolate' is the object complement, restating the direct object 'cake'.
-- Note: the word 'favorite' is now an adjective describing the noun cake.