# What can chi-squared tests indicate about categorical data?

##### 1 Answer

The chi-square test can be used to estimate how closely the distribution of a categorical variable matches an expected distribution. This the so called the goodness-of-fit test. It can also be used to estimate whether two categorical variables

are independent of one another. This the independence test.

The key word is test between categorical variables.

#### Explanation:

We use the chi-square test, to examine patterns between categorical variables, such as genders, political candidates, locations, or preferences, etc.

The

**Observed** = actual count values in each category

**Expected** = the predicted (expected) counts in each category if the null hypothesis were true

How do you conduct a

The same way as in the more familiar tests Z-test or T-test.

Effectively, following the same steps and compare a calculated value to a value on a distribution table to evaluate the probability of getting the results we have if the null hypothesis is true, just as you would with the Z and T tests.