What conditions can cause elevated cardiac enzymes other than a heart attack?
Pulmonary embolism, acute pulmonary edema, septic shock, myocarditis.
There are several cardiac biomarkers or enzymes. These are detectable in blood tests. Normally in blood their level is very low. But after an event of heart attack the level increases. So these are used to diagnose heart attack (Acute myocardial infarction).
In an event of heart attack a part of the heart muscle die due to lack of blood. It occurs when an artery supplying heart muscle is blocked. the cardiac biomarkers actually resides inside the cardiac muscles. As the muscles die they come out in blood. And their level in blood increases.
Examples of cardiac biomarkers : Troponin I & T
and a type of creatinine kinase specific for heart (CK-MB).
Other than heart attacks these biomarkers may increase in :
Pulmonary embolism : part of the lung can not get blood due to block in blood vessel.
Acute pulmonary edema : Fluid in lung alveoli.
Septic shock : Failure of blood to be circulated to vital organs due to an infection.
Myocarditis : Inflammation of heart muscle (this is not heart attack).