What is chronic renal failure?
Chronic renal failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD), is the progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Causes of CKD
The most common causes of CKD are
- hypertension (high blood pressure)
- glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the glomerulus)
- interstitial nephritis (inflammation of the nephron)
- polycystic kidney disease
Identification of CKD
Chronic kidney disease is identified by creatinine in the blood and albumin in the urine.
Higher levels of creatinine indicate a lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and, as a result, a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products.
Albumin levels are graded by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR).
The stages of CKD are based on both GFR and UACR.
CKD based on GFR
CKD based on albuminuria
The CKD assessment according to GFR and UACR is summarized in the chart below.