What is DNA replication?

1 Answer

It is a process of cell division when a mother cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells, precisely replicating the DNA on every single chromosome.

The process called mitosis begins in the nucleus of the cell. There are 5 stages - prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, interphase. The DNA strands unwind from their double helix shape, exposing the loose ends of the nitrogen bases in the DNA molecules. The centrioles of the cells move to opposite sides and the DNA strands and spindle fibres attach to them. Free nitrogen bases in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm bond onto their corresponding pairs and in very special triplet pairs called codons, where Adenine bond to Thymine and Guanine bond to Cytosine.

The order of these sequences is very important and also plays a role in protein synthesis. Once the bonding has completed, the centrioles move back and the new DNA strands contract and go back into chromosome form, new nuclear envelopes form and cytoplasmic cleavage occurs in which the 2 cells spit and hence 2 identical copies of the original cell now exist, both with identical DNA.