What is inductive effect?

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Mridul Share
Feb 24, 2017

Answer:

In chemistry and physics, the inductive effect is an experimentally observable effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule, resulting in a permanent dipole in a bond.

Explanation:

Inductive Effect-

• This effect is shifting of shared pair of electron towards more electronegative atom.
• This effect is distance dependence effect.
• Electron shifting takes place not transfer.
• This effect is applicable to ${3}^{\text{rd}}$ carbon only.
• It is of two types $+ I$ and $- I$
• $- I$ is observed when an electronegative atom is connected to carbon. This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect. For eg. $- F$, $- C l$, $- B r$, $- C O O H$, $- S R$, $- O R$, $- S H$, $- O H$, $- N H R$, $- C O C l$
• $+ I$ is electron-releasing inductive effect. It is observed when $- {C}_{2} {H}_{5}$, $- C {H}_{3}$, $- H$, $- D$, $- T$, $- {C}_{3} {H}_{7}$ are connected.
• $+ I$ of H is taken to be zero.
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