What is inductive effect?

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Mridul Share
Feb 24, 2017

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In chemistry and physics, the inductive effect is an experimentally observable effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule, resulting in a permanent dipole in a bond.

Explanation:

Inductive Effect-

  • This effect is shifting of shared pair of electron towards more electronegative atom.
  • This effect is distance dependence effect.
  • Electron shifting takes place not transfer.
  • This effect is applicable to #3^"rd"# carbon only.
  • It is of two types #+I# and #-I#
  • #-I# is observed when an electronegative atom is connected to carbon. This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect. For eg. #- F#, #- Cl#, #- Br#, #-COOH#, #- SR#, #- OR#, #- SH#, #- OH#, #- NHR#, #-COCl#
  • #+I# is electron-releasing inductive effect. It is observed when #- C_2H_5#, #- CH_3#, #- H#, #- D#, #-T#, #- C_3H_7# are connected.
  • #+ I# of H is taken to be zero.
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