What is the difference between Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acids and bases?
Arrhenius => release of
Bronsted-Lowry => donation/acceptance of proton
Lewis => acceptance/donation of electron pair
The definition of acid and base according to the three acid-base theories are:
Arrhenius acid-base theory
- acid - a substance produces hydrogen ions (
#H^+#) in aqueous solution.
- base - a substance that produces hydroxide ions (
#OH^-#) in aqueous solution.
Here's the general equation defining Arrhenius acid and base:
Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory
acid - proton (hydrogen ion) donor
base - proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor
Here are examples showing general equation defining (a) acid and (b) base:
In (a), HA is an acid since it donates proton(
Lewis acid-base theory
acid - electron pair acceptor
base - electron pair donor
An example illustrating Lewis acid-base: