What is the gravitational force that the Sun exerts on Jupiter?
Using Newton's law of universal gravitation:
All values taken here are from Wikipedia-but I've taken the mean value of the distance between Jupiter and the sun.
1 Astronomical unit=
Mean distance between Jupiter and the sun=
Mass of the Sun
Mass of Jupiter
(2 significant figures)
Is the force of attraction between Jupiter and the sun due to their masses.
The Sun exerts no force on Jupiter.
Gravity is not a force. Newton's laws approximate gravity as a force; Einstein proved that gravity is a consequence of mass and energy curving spacetime.
Jupiter is simply following a geodesic, which is the four dimensional equivalent of a straight line. It is simply following a curve in spacetime caused by the Sun's mass.