# What is the range of f(x) = -3^x - 1?

The answer is f(x) in (-oo;-1)
1. The exponential function ${3}^{x}$ has values in ${\mathbb{R}}_{+}$
2. The minus sign makes the range (-oo;0)
3. Substracting 1 moves the graph one unit down and therefore moves the range to (-00;-1)