What is the small loop of DNA that can get transferred from one bacterium to another bacterium called?
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell , that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independtly.
Plasmids are usually very small and contain only additional genes, that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions.
Plasmids can be transmitted from one bacterium to another via transformation, transduction and conjugation.
Plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism e.g. antibiotic resistance.
Plasmids provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer within a population of microbes and typically provide a selective advantage under a given environmental state.