What problems weakened shogun rule in Japan in the mid-1800s?
There are some problems, including the relationship with the U.S., confusion of economy.
In the mid-1800th, the commerce between China and the U.S. was increasing. The U.S. needed fuelling stations and forced Japan to open its port to foreign country.
Matthew Perry visited Japan twice in 1853 and in 1854 and had negotiation with Tokugawa. They concluded Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854 and so-called "national isolation" of Japan is lifted.
After that, they got to the conclusion to Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and the Empire of Japan in 1858.
However, this treaty, known as Harris Treaty was unfair to Japan for two reasons.
- Japan allowed the U.S. to have consular court.
- Japan had no rights to determine the tariff themselves.
Harris Treaty caused economy confusion and people in Japan responded sharply against the shogunate and foreigners.