What type of technology might be used to build a low-carbon economy?
Lets talk big:
The main factor to carbon emissions would be energy production and fossil fuel cars.
Right now, many countries rely on burning fossil fuels for energy. There are a few candidates to replace such reliance and that is wind turbine and hydroelectricity. Such technologies especially wind energy are apparent in European countries. China and some parts of Asia use hydroelectricity. Ultimately, what we want is * nuclear fusion (not to be confused with nuclear fission )* . It is powerful, clean and safe with perhaps zero nuclear waste.
Much of the world however still rely on fossil fuel for energy and for export. A transition to green and renewable energy however, will certainly cause a bit of economic turmoil to some countries which explains the reluctance of many politicians to make the move to green technologies.
Besides power generation, scientists are scrambling to find high temperature superconductors (hts). This will make electrical transmission easy and efficient . Much energy is wasted to transmit energy from power generators to our houses. The advent of hts will change all that.
As for cars, our best bet for electric cars would be Tesla Motors .
Any sort of effort in research to reduce energy wastage or to take advantage of wasted energy is green technology.
Thin film technology on windows can reflect some infrared spectrum to reduce heat getting into buildings. Large scale pyrolysis on biomass can prevent carbon emissions into the atmosphere by acting as carbon sinks . Innovative agricultural waste management can also go a long way by preventing unnecessary release of carbon dioxide and methane.
For a nation to have low-carbon economy, it must have a robust research endeavor and a proactive implementation for green technology.