What types of functional groups are present in an amino acid? A carbohydrate?

1 Answer
Feb 28, 2015

An amino acid contains a carboxyl group and an amine group and other groups, depending on its structure.

A carbohydrate contains hydroxyl groups and several other functional groups depending on the structure.

A typical amino acid has the formula


The green NH₂ group is an amino group. The COOH is the carboxyl group.

In addition the R side chain may contain other functional groups such as -SH (sulfhydryl) and -S-S- disulfide).

Glucose and fructose are typical carbohydrates.


They both contain hydroxyl groups, but glucose has an aldehyde group while fructose has a ketone group.

The cyclic forms contain hemiacetal, hemiketal, acetal, and ketal groups.


The cyclic form of glucose has a hemiacetal group at C-1, and fructose has a hemiketal group at C-2.


In lactose, the 1,4-linkage between galactose and glucose is an acetal group.


In sucrose, the 1,2-link between glucose and fructose is an acetal on the glucose side and a ketal on the fructose side.