What types of jobs are available to individuals with a degree in cosmology?
Huh...I don't think there is a degree in cosmology. Your degree would be in astronomy, astrophysics and physics. Astrophysicists work for colleges and universities and you can also work for NASA.
So to answer to the question, the job I think you can get is "Teacher". Or you can work for NASA but I think you'll have to do extra study.
I hope this helps and hopefully someone will add something in here :)