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The Democratic-Republican Party


The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. This political faction operated from 1792-1828. The main purpose of this party was to firmly oppose any policies by the Federalists Party, which was run by none other than Alexander Hamilton! The party gained traction and was in power nationally from 1801-1825. Most historians agree that The Democratic-Republican Party was a preliminary to the modern Democratic Party.

During the George Washington administration, many former Anti-Federalists began to congregate to oppose Hamilton's policies. They adopted the name "Republican" because they were heavily influenced by the French Revolution. When war broke out between France and Britain in 1792, the Republican coalition sided with France and the Federalists sided with Britain, causing even more tension.

Transport to the election of 1824, The Democratic-Republican Party was split between the hotly contested election between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. The results of that election fractured the party. The party subsequently split into 2 groups. The National Republicans, who would later become the core of the Whig Party, which were led by Quincy Adams. The other side was organized by future president Martin Van Buren were called Jacksonian Democrats, or later, Democrats. They were led by Jackson himself. The Democratic Party was then established in 1844. The Republican Party wouldn't become established until 1854.


That all men are created equal and therefore have basic rights.


To anyone reading the Bible for themselves it was "self evident" that all people were created equal. Paul writes that in Christ there is no difference between male and female, between free or slave, between Greek and Jews. (Gal 3 :28) Clearly in the view of the Bible all men are created equal.

In Thomas Jefferson's time most people could read the Bible for themselves. One of the major impacts of the Great Awakening was an increase in literacy. In 1670 before the Great Awakening 60% of the population were literate. In 1760 just before the American Revolution 85% of the population was literate.

John Locke said "reason teaches all mankind would but consult it that being equal and independent no one or pose to harm anyone in life health liberty possessions." (Second Trieatise concerning Civl Government) Jefferson was greatly influenced by the writings of John Locke and agreed that it was logically that people had basic human rights to liberty.

John Locke in a previous essay had proven that no where in the Bible was the concept of the divine right of kings could be found. The power of the elite was based on traditions of the medieval church not Biblical authority or human reason.

So based on human reason and Biblical authority Jefferson stated it was self evident to anyone who studied the issue that people are created equal and have basic human rights.


He feared that a powerful national government would threaten the rights of the people.


Consider this from Jeffersons letter to Madison on December 20, 1787:

"...I will now add what I do not like. First the omission of a bill of rights providing clearly & without the aid
of sophisms for freedom of religion, freedom of the press, protection against standing armies, restriction
against monopolies, the eternal & unremitting force of the habeas corpus laws, and trials by jury… a bill
of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular, &
what no just government should refuse, or rest on inferences."

(Original version:


The states had to ratify it.


In order for the U.S. Constitution to become law, 9 of the 13 states had to ratify it (ratify means to "make an agreement officially valid").

5 states ratified it in December of 1787 and January of 1788 - only several months after the signing.

  1. Delaware
  2. Pennsylvania
  3. New Jersey
  4. Georgia
  5. Connecticut

Other states were not so hasty. They did not want to ratify the Constitution without some extra amendments added - such as freedom of speech, religion and the press.

An agreement was made assuring these states that if they ratified the Constitution, amendments would be added later. These amendments became what we call the Bill of Rights.

The 4 last states needed for ratification were:

  1. Massachusetts
  2. Maryland
  3. South Carolina
  4. New Hampshire

Eventually, all of the 13 states ratified the Constitution, the last being Rhode Island in May 1790.


Yes it was reasonable


Communism had conquered China with its vast population. the soviet union had extended its communistic control over most of Eastern Europe. Communist rebels were threatening to take over Greece by force. A strong Communist party in France seemed to have an excellent chance of winning elections in the post world war II elections.

The quasi religious utopia promised by the Communists had great emotional appeal. The communist control militaries of China and the Soviet Union were the largest in the world. The Communist had shown (and would show) that they were more than willing to use military force to speed the ideology of Communism.

At the end of world war II in the 1940s it seemed an open question if communism would take over and rule the entire world or if the western democracies would be able to contain the spread of communism.


The Navigation Acts benefited England in that the colonies had to purchase imports only brought by English ships and could only sale their products to England.


The Navigation Acts only benefited England. The Acts added costs to all the items that the colonies had wanted to import. Instead of the prices being controlled by competition with other importers English merchants could charge what ever the market could support. If merchants from other nations had be able to bring goods to the colonies the prices for imports would have been lower.

The Navigation Acts hurt the colonies economic development. Manufactured goods from the colonies could not compete with manufactured goods produced in England. First England could charge tariffs on the manufactured goods from the colonies. Also the colonies could not attempt to sale their goods to other nations and developing colonies. Mexico, Brazil, and other colonies would have been interested in buying the colonies, guns, glass, rum, and other products. Under the Navigation Acts these could only be sold to England.

The raw materials produced by the colonies could only be sold to England. Tobacco grown in the colonies could only be sold to English merchants that then could resale the tobacco for a profit to France, Germany and other European markets. The same unfair practices applied to lumber, furs, and cotton.

The Navigation Acts were all for the benefit of the "mother country" There was no benefit to the colonies.

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