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They used Civil Disobedience


in 1960, in Greensboro SNCC activists organized a sit-in in Woolworth to protest segregation. SNCC stands for Southern Nonviolent Coordination Committe, it used Thoreau's principles of peaceful resistance to the state just like Gandhi in India.


He won Florida thanks to the Supreme Court.


The 2000 presidential election is the most controversial in US History, the resut was contested because it was uncertain who won in Florida, a swing state.

Al Gore won the popular vote but the Supreme Court granted the victory to Bush by putting an end to the recount. Allegations of fraud have been cast on the Bushes as Jeb Bush was governor of Florida.

Bush had a similar program than Gore, he put forward "compassionate conservatism", his stance on the economy was quite similar to Gore's. He also favored a more humble foreign policy and blamed the Democrats for policing the world.


See below


In 1890 the Census Bureau declared that the frontier was closed. It meant that no ne lands could be discovered.

Frederick Jackson Turner is the key historian who coined the idea of frontier which has an almost mythical dimension.

Find details: http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/turner.htm

His famous speech:http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text1/turner.pdf

The development of the railroads had been the main factor contributing to the conquest of the West.

Tremendous amounts of resources could be extracted thanks to those discoveries.


They came from China to build the Central Pacific Railway,
They came mainly from Ireland to build Railroad from the East.


After the Civil War, China supplied the USA a labor force to build its railroads.

About 80% of the Workforce on the Central Pacific Railway was Chinese by 1869. They hired there first Chinese workers in 1865. This was only on the Western portion of the Railway line the Eastern Railway portion was being built using European heritage workers , mainly Irish who had been displaced by the Irish potato famine. and other railway companies. The two railroads meet in Utah and a golden spike placed at the junction.

The western portion was of course more difficult and dangerous.
The granite rocks of the Sierra Nevada's had to be dynamited out.
The Eastern portion suffered from Indian attacks, and the vast distances of the American prairies. The Western portion also had to cross the Rocky mountains.

By <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Cave_cattum&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="User:Cave cattum (page does not exist)">Cave cattum</a> - <span class="int-own-work" lang="en">Own work</span>, <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" title="Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0">CC BY-SA 3.0</a>, <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=783429">Link</a>

The transcontinental line did not get Congressional support until the Republican controlled Congress during the Civil War supported the idea.

The Chinese workers tended to be cheaper, sober, and more co-operative than other workers.



The people who wanted to preserve the union. The federalists and the abolitionists.


Abraham Lincoln more than anything else wanted to preserve the union. The people of Maryland and Kentucky put the preservation of the union ahead of their status as slave states. These states lost a lot of their wealth and culture but they won because the union they believed in was preserved. Those who wanted the union of the United States to continue won the Civil War.

The federalist won the Civil War. One of the main issues determined by the Civil War was which was dominate the central federal government or States sovereignty. Before the Civil War both South Carolina and Massachusetts declared federal laws null and void that they disagreed with. During the Civil War most of the military units had more loyalty to their states than to federal or confederate governments. After the Civil War it was clear the Federal Government had predominance over the State's rights.

The abolitionists may have been the biggest winners. The abolitionist wanted the complete elimination of slavery. The Civil War was fought over the issue of Slavery. The South wanted slavery to be legal throughout the nation. During his elections campaign President Lincoln simply wanted to restrict slavery to the south and to pass laws that would restrict and maybe eventually phase out slavery. It wasn't until the Proclamation of Emancipation that the elimination of slavery became a goal of the Civil War. At the end of the Civil War Constitutional amendments were passed making slavery totally illegal everywhere.


The Trail of Tears was shameful because it violated American ideals, American laws, American Treaties, and was violation of the rights, dignity and humanity of the Cherokee Nation.


The United States had long recognized the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation. The United States had signed numerous treaties with the Cherokee Nations. These treaties recognized the rights of the Cherokee Nation to their land.

Taking away the land of the Cherokee violated those treaties and allowed the State of Georgia to break the word of the United States.
It was shameful that the United States would break its word and signed treaties with the Cherokee Nation.

The Cherokee nation appealed to the United States Supreme Court for redress of the laws of Georgia that were forcing the Cherokee out of their land, and giving their homes to White settlers. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee Nation but had no power to enforce the ruling. It was shameful that the forceful removal of the Cherokee from their land was ruled unconstitutional yet it happened anyway in violation of American laws and traditions.

The American ideal is that all people have the same rights under the law. All people should be treated fairly with no favors to one group or discrimination of another group. It is shameful that the United States violated those ideals in its treatment of the Cherokee. Greedy whites were allowed to claim the wealth and lands of the Cherokee, because the Cherokee were of a foreign nation.

The Trail of Tears was shameful because of the way the Cherokee people. The land was taken away in violation of their rights and American Law. The Cherokee were robbed of their land and given land in Oklahoma that they and no one else wanted. In the cold of winter the entire nation was forced to walk for months. Many died along the way. Others were forced by soldiers armed with rifles and bayonets, despite being tired cold and hungry. A proud people were treated as criminals because someone else wanted their land.
It was beyond shameful that the Cherokee could be treated so badly.

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