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This question is far too broad, you need to narrow it down, a lot.


In the first 30 days the U.S. concentrated on re-opening Pearl Harbor and figuring out how it would conduct a two front war. By January 1942 the government had effectively gotten the U.S. press to allow censorship of all war related material. The U.S. population did not know for months after Pearl Harbor how many men had perished on that day.

The government also go much of industrial America to change their production lines to suit military needs, i.e. all car manufacturers ceased production of cars for civilian use and converted many of their assembly lines to build, jeeps, tanks, aircraft and other military necessities.

The first full-scale U.S. offensive, of sorts, was the Doolittle raid on Tokyo. It was not meant for anything more than to tell the Japanese government that we could get to them when we wanted.

The U.S. could not commit any sizeable number of troops into action simply because it did not have enough to do so. And so from January through September the services spent most of its energy on enlisting new troops, training them and then positioning them for later deployment.

During those months, high government officials and ranking military leaders consulted with the allied nations of the steps they would take as the U.S. entered the war.


Activities like those of Senator Joseph McCarthy (Republican) started in the 1950s. It has come to refer to a broader time era and larger movement of the time. Anyone using such tactics.


Senator Joseph McCarthy (Republican) rose to prominence during the Red Scare of the 1940s and 50s caused by the post World War 2 creation of the Communist Bloc in Eastern Europe, the take over of China by the Communists, the acquisition of nuclear technology by the Russians, and the ongoing Cold War.

He suddenly became nationally prominent in 1950 after a speech where he declared he had a list of Communists in the State Department. He never actually produced such a list even though he had a piece paper in his hand at the time. The number of actual communists listed varied from time to time.

There were a number of investigative committees at work in the U.S. government and over the next few years McCarthy would testified on communist activities before them. Notable in this was the House Un-America Activities Committee (HUAC). A group established by the House of Representatives in 1938 to investigate communist activities in America.

McCarthy's accusations often had a air of fact about them but were unsubstantiated by actual documentation. Persons brought before these committees were often not allowed lawyers, nor allowed to cross examine their accusers. Bullying tactics were used to extract information. The accused were encouraged to accuse others. Lists of names (a Blacklist) were compiled and these people were vilified and often driven from their work and community.

Notable in this was the Hollywood Blacklist in which a number of prominent film writers and directors became unemployable in the industry. Some later resumed work under pseudonyms.

The findings of the committees were often later overturned on procedural grounds or facts in the cases were found to be false. In the hysteria this did not matter and the damage was done. There were a number of suicides attributable to this ostracizing.

Companies and groups across the nation began investigating their employees and members for communist activity. They demanded employees sign loyalty oaths. Again, people were hounded from their work and communities on equally thin evidence and questionable procedures.

The televising of the hearings of the HUAC exposed the unfairness of these tactics and there was a public backlash against them.

Less notably McCarthy accused people of homosexual sex crimes in a similar way. He was occasionally anti-Semitic.

McCarthy was censured by the Senate for his actions and faded rapidly from the spotlight. He died in 1957 while still in office.


With money, equipment and volunteerry officers and soldiers.


How not to speak of him! Certainly the name of Gilbert du Motier de La Fayette is well known and respected on the American side of the Atlantic. He is the acknowledged French contribution to the American Revolution.
I am in no way attempting to demystify his myth; but (on this historical and educational site) it is important to consider a few facts.

Lafayette was very young when, in 1775, he crossed the Atlantic on a ship chartered at his own expense and loaded with arms and warriors paid out of his purse. He also had a coffer full of gold coins for the cause as he was aware of Washington's stringent situation.
He was wealthy, he was 19, with just one year of military training and willing to risk not only his life and fortune for the American cause, but also the king's favor.

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Louis XVI in fact had not decided which side to take in the looming American war, and certainly did not appreciate the young man making the decision in his stead.

Washington welcomed Lafayette with open arms. He was the first (and from what I have seen the only) ally to show up at his door fully equipped and with money to spare. His other helpers, all hot English haters from the four corners of Europe, had come penniless and expecting to be equipped and placed in a position of command.

Washington loved the young man as a son, he hardly ever put him in a position of danger. But the Frenchman did serve in a number of operations under fire.

By far less acknowledged is the contribution of Louis XVI's regular army.
The new king had eventually made up his mind and paid his shirt for the chip he had kept on his shoulder after his father's 7 Year War.

The American Revolution nearly bankrupted France. But the French army and navy kept up the colours.
The Royal Fleet took part to the fruitless siege of Savannah, where Admiral d’Estaing nearly lost his life; and Rochambeau and his army were decisive in the final victory at Yorktown.

An anecdote that has a certain importance, Colonel Stanton, leader of the expeditionary force that had entered Paris in 1918, had not forgtten what the French had done for the American Independence. He visited La Fayette’s' tomb and, after a moment of intentness, He exclaimed for everyone to hear: "La Fayette, nous voila! "(La Fayette, we are here!).


First of all, South Carolina itself seceded, then in February 1861, 7 southern slave states formed the Confederacy. All this was before he took the office in March 1861. Since the Confederacy was not recognized as a legal entity by the Federal Government, there was no actual declaration of war. Fighting started at Fort Sumter.

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The reason for this is because that the Confederate forces bombarded and forced the evacuation of the Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina. It was very important to Lincoln that the Union does not attack unless the first shots were fired by the South.


The common people , the rural farmers, the shopkeepers and residence of small towns.


The preachers of the great awakening, stressed personal responsibility toward God. They taught that salvation was a personal thing dependent of the grace of God. This grace was not dependent on wealth,( contributions to the organized church) education ( thought education was emphasized as each person was suppose to be able to read and interpret the Bible for themselves) or social standing.

This personal responsibility extended to the social and political spheres of America. The common people began to demand more personal control of their government. The common people no longer depended on leadership from the intellectual and social elite. This was one of the causes of the American Revolution.

The common people responded to this call in droves. Camp meetings not held in formal churches attracted large numbers of people. The Great Awakening changed American society. As was stated in a translation of the Bible into English This book will bring a system of government of the people by the people and for the people.

The appeal of the preachers of the Great Awakening was not to the church or political leaders, but to the common people.


It spanned from 1897 to 1913 and remained famous for the series of reforms that was introduced.


It was marked by the two terms of Theodore Roosevelt from 1901 to 1909, he is known for having been a reformator. He introduced reforms to put an end to trusts. He regulated the meat packing industry and the pharmaceutical industry with the passing of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. Fears had been triggered after the publication of "The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair in 1905.

After the populist campaign of 1896(embodied by William Jennings Bryan), trusts became increasingly unpopular. According to Marxist historians such as Howard Zinn, these moves towars less corporation power was only a means to restrain popular anger.

He favored the development of the National Parks which proved to weaken the authority of the States and to strengthen the Federal Government.

The Gilded Age(1865-1897) is often described as the "sunset of the presidency", Congress was indeed stronger than the executive power during that period. TR reversed that trend.

The introduction of the Federal Reserve System and of the Graduated Income Tax in 1913 during Taft's presidency also illustrates the evolution that characerized that period. The Federal Reserve System was invented by Nelson Aldrich and J.D Rockefeller on Jekyll Island, Georgia on the 22nd of November in 1910. In 1907 a major financial crisis had struck the American economy and Theodore Roosevelt created a commision appointing Aldrich at the head of it, in order to stabilize the American financial system. The FRS was his answer.

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