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The Soviet Union joined the Allies because Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union had a non aggression pact. This allowed Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and divide up Poland. It also allowed the Soviet Union to annex the Baltic States.
Germany then was able to focus its armed forces on France and United Kingdom. In a lightening attack Germany destroyed the France army and conquered France. The air battle to pave the way for an invasion of England failed.
The Soviet Union stood by and did nothing to help France or England, during this time.
When Germany's attempt to conquer England failed Hitler turned his attention to the Soviet Union. When Germany broke the treaty with the Soviet Union the Soviet Union asked to join the Allies in the fight against the Axis Powers.
The United Kingdom, and America were already fighting the Axis powers of Germany, Italy and Japan. The enemy of my enemy is my friend. Since the Soviet Union had a common enemy of Germany with the UK and the US they became friends.
America and England shipped tons of war material to the Soviet Union through the Murmask Convoys. This helped the Soviet Union defeat the Germans in Stalingrad. The opening of a Western Front in North Africa, Italy, Southern France and finally Normandy helped to relieve the pressure on the Soviet Union.
By becoming Allies with the (despised) western powers the Soviet Union was better able to resist the invasion by the Nazi war machine. Still the Soviet Union took the brunt of the fighting of the war suffering the most dead and wounded of any nation in World War II.
They were sending electric impulses that could be coded according to their duration to form the Morse Code.
The telegraph used the fact that you can send electrical signals through a wire (as when you switch on and off a lamp using the switch on the wall) and you can "listen" to them by using a mechanical device (usually involving a coil and a magnet).
Exactly as in the case of a lamp you can use a long or small period of light to form different letters, say, short+long=A, short+short=I and so on, and these combinations are collected in the Morse Code . By sending groups of these impulses you could form words and sentences.
Telegraph involved a lot of skill from the operators to interpret quickly and exactly a series of long+short electrical signals appearing to them as clicks of the receiving device. Sometimes very skilled operators could even recognize the operator on the other side simply because their "special touch"!
The 2 attitudes are whether one is a slave by unfortunate circumstances or that one is a slave because they are naturally inferior. Whether this is a "European" or "African" trait is debatable.
Early Classical views on slavery and those in Africa were often based on the fact that the slave was often a prisoner of war, or someone who owed money or had other legal difficulties, rather than by heritage a slave.
American views were often based that most slaves were children of slaves and there were very few people that were newly slaves as their importation was often restricted.
The Koran encouraged wage labor and the freeing of slaves so slavery was a not a passed on to the next generation. The bible was split by interpretation and could be used to justify slavery as the heritage of an inferior people or to justify the equality and brotherhood of all
It is difficult to assign these views necessarily to "Europeans" or "Africans" since the largest market for slaves was the new world and not in Europe. Most slaves came from Africa. Both Europeans and many Africans were willing participants in the Slave trade. Certainly slave owners were often of European heritage and slaves of African Heritage.
Slaves became a necessity to exploit the resources of the new world their perceived inferiority of heritage developed over time. High numbers of deaths often contributed to this view.
One which was corrupt and dictatorial.
Diem's regime, backed by the USA became increasingly oppressive as pressure grew to hold democratic elections. Diem refused afraid that his opponents might win.
However he became an embarrassment to the USA and he and his brother were assassinated in a CIA backed military coup in 1963.
It was just days before the Kennedy assassination and his widow Madame Nhu, along with others, pointed to a conspiracy. The military took over but far from ending the conflict it contributed to both its escalation and a rapid increase in US combat soldiers in Vietnam.
A series of ground offensives and landings that led to the invasion and conquest of Germany. Hitler killed himself then the remaining Nazis surrender unconditionally.
The allies defeated Germany by fielding more men, tanks, guns, ships, aircraft and supplies than the Germans. They did also beat the Germans at their own game: Mechanized combined operations.
The Normandy Invasion in the West and Operation Bagration in the East were key moments and the Allies pushed the front back to the German borders. Massive offensives crushed the weakening power of the German Armed forces. The German's strength was ground down over time.
None of the German weapons research came soon enough to significantly blunt the Allies attacks. In particular their nuclear research did not pan out. The lack of many Strategic resources like oil hindered operations.
The German Armies were still significantly holding back the Allied Armies as late as April 1945. German training and weapons were very advanced for their time.
Allied Strategic Air attacks also contributed and Allied cryptography (Enigma/Ultra) was a major asset.
The Allied agreement not to negotiate separately with Germany probably extended the War and made the war more costly in lives.
Germany also lacked friends big and small at the end of the war by their brutal treatment of almost everyone. Whole countries like Romania switched sides when the going got tough.
Hitler made plans to poison water supplies and other scorched earth type actions in Germany. Common sense prevailed and most of these plans were not carried out.
It very much depended on his/her rank and file.
Let's say that the main motivation, at all levels, was loot. It may be loot of different natures, but it still was loot.
The high rank aristocracy hoped for a crown or a borough.
The lower ranks for a barony; and the soldiers for plunder.
The religious motivations did exist. Dying in battle was a free passport to Heaven with plenary indulgence (that is without stopping in the Purgatory before admittance).
The standard were blessed by the pope and all the pump of a Great Mass moved on with the warriors.
The sack of Constantinople by the 4th Crusade*
But let's bear in mind that not many of the 9 or 10 crusades even made it to Jerusalem or Palestine. Some did not go past Egypt, one stopped in Constantinople; another one ended up in Tunisia (of all places) and one was concluded with a financial transaction before any blows were struck.
In many cases squabbles arose among the crowned leaders and the alleged wronged party returned home (with his troops) before the fight.
Some Muslim towns and villages were sieged and sacked. But the worst of all pillages by a crusading army was suffered by Constantinople (a Christian, though schismatic, city).
Crusades were no different from the numerous wars fought on the European, the African continent or in Asia Minor. Armies have always moved to action with the blessing and the promises of the local preachers.
As for women present during the crusades there were several of different statuses. Wives, daughters and sisters of the leaders followed their men to the East. Several nuns did specially for the First Crusade.
You will find a exhaustive list at this Wikipedia address:
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