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Combating post injury infections


Prior to the discovery of Penicillin the survival rate of trauma injuries was comparatively low (but had been increasing since Lister discovered antiseptics and cleanliness became standard in medical facilities)

But battlefield wounds are almost inevitably incredibly dirty wounds - oil and powder residue on the projectile, fragments of dirty clothing carried into the wound etc - so the likelihood of infection was extremely high - Penicillin was able to fight these infections to a large extent

Other advances - McIndoe's treatment of deep burns and reconstructive surgery https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea_Pig_Club

Discovery of Sulfanilamide to combat infection

Blood Plasma - Although proposed in WW1 it wasn't available until WW2

Use of Morphine although used in WW1 it was extensively used in WW2

Recognition of PTSD (but called "Battle Fatigue") - no longer were sufferers accused of cowardice. (Not well handle by the US but other nations learned from there WW1 experiences).

Discovery of Penicillin as a cure for VD - and VD was a significant cause of loss of manpower to the armies particularly in Italy


The First World War broke several European powers, Russia being one of them.


The First World War was enormously expensive in terms of lives, finances, and material and the strain of the war broke several empires. Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire were all broken by the war, the German lost their overseas colonies (and their financial stability). Even the French endured a major mutiny -- the British lost their place as the world's leading economy, but were alone among the major powers to not have armies collapse and/or mutiny in the field.

The Russian Empire performed badly in the field, and received several sound defeats in 1914 and 1915, largely at the hands of the Germans. The tactical paradigm of the war (in which defenders could reinforce failure faster than attackers could exploit it) saw 1916 emerge as the year in which the Allies tried to grind the Germans down through massive attrition at Verdun and the Somme on the Western Front, and with the Brusilov offensive.

The Brusilov Offensive was a massive Russian effort (and revealed some good generalship and tactical sense). It was aimed at the weaker Austro-Hungarian armies, but soon drew in German reinforcements. However, it wasn't decisive -- despite the loss of 504,000 Russian troops against some 730,000 Austrian and German casualties and 400,000 Austrian prisoners.

Russian morale, food shortages and unrest at the front and at home sank in the winter of 1916-17, resulting in the February revolution, where the Russians urged the Czar to reliqnish power and allow a Parliamentary system in stead. The Germans assessed that Russian willpower was wavering and unleashed a secret weapon.

The Russian Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin was confined to Switzerland by the war, and angry at his inability to sway events. The German General Staff offered him transport through Germany in a sealed railway car, and thence by ferry to Neutral Sweden. This put Lenin back into play, and the turmoil of the continuing war was something he could work in his favor.


These three men were the rulers of France ruing the medieval ages.
Charles Martel was the grandfather of Charlemagne.


Clovis was the first king of the Franks. Clovis established a kingdom in the area of what had been Gaul after the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire. His kingdom is dated about 466 AD. The Merovingian Kings ruled France until Pippen III the son of Charles Martel disposed the last Merovingian King.

Charles Martel 728- 741 was a military leader under the Merovingian kings. He effectively ruled kingdom of the Franks in the name of the king.

Charles Martel ( Charles the Hammer) conquered several smaller kingdoms in the area of Gaul. Charles Martel organized a trained organized army of professional soldiers supported by the previous free farmers of the Franks.

In 732 this professional army defeated the invading Muslim army at the battle of Tours/ Poitiers. This was the first defeat that the Muslim armies had experienced in 100 years and stopped the invasion of Europe by the Muslim Empire.

The prestige of the battle in 732 won Pippin III, Charles Martel's son the Crown as King of the Franks. Charlemagne 768-814 the grandson of Charles Martel inherited the crown. Charlemagne used his throne as king of the Franks to also conquer northern Italy and most of what is know Germany.

Charlemagne turned the kingdom of the Franks into what became the Holy Roman Empire. The kingdom of the Franks started with Clovis I. Charles Martel brought the kingdom of the Franks into power and prominence.


From the 4th Century until modern times, Christian monasteries created communities that tended to be self-sufficient religious centres that provided many valuable services.


The Monastery movement spread through much of Roman Europe (and to Ireland!) before the end of the West Roman Empire. Monasteries, and then nunneries, provided a temporary or lifelong retreat from normal life into a spiritual community that tended to be self-supporting, and which often provided valuable support to the larger community.

Monasteries provided safe havens for travellers, schools, hospitals, refuge for the aged and dying, orphanages, and much else. For much of the Middle Ages, they were what passed for the 'social safety net'. Women in particular could find a life of dignity and purpose beyond that of being wife (or mistress).

They weren't perfect, and were often notorious. Unwanted daughters were often consigned to nunneries, and the portrait of the fat, lecherous, and ignorant monk appeared often enough in late Medieval literature.... just as zealous fanatics sometimes popped up too from 5th Egypt to Savonarola in 15th Century Florence. Some monasteries became powerful institutions, which could lead to the abuses that come with power.

Against this were the long centuries of architecture, art, charity, engineering, medicine, music, philosophy, scholarship, science, teaching and hard-work. The Benedictines were (and remain) famous for their libraries and devotion to preserving knowledge, Cistercians for many agricultural developments, Franciscans and Poor Clares for their devotion to those in need.


No There is no genetic link between the Canaanites ( the various people groups that lived in Canaan and the Arabs


The Arabs actually trace their genetic ancestry to Abraham same as the Jewish people. The Arabs did not arrive in mass until their conquest of Canaan ( now called Israel) until 634.

The various people groups that occupied Canaan intermingled with the various conquering groups, including the Jews, and Arabs ( As well as the philistines, Hitties, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. ) There is undoubably some Canaanite genetic influence in the Arab population but the early Canaanites can hardly be considered to be the ancestors of the Arabs.


The discovery of iron.


The Hittite war chariot was made with iron hub wheels; this made the Hittite war chariot stronger, faster, and longer lasting. Also, the warriors in the chariot were armed with superior weapons. Their iron tipped arrows had much greater penetrating power that the copper and bronze arrows of the Egyptians, who were the Hittites main rivals. The war chariot was sometimes equipped with iron swords on the hubs to cut opposing infantry units.

The Hittites ruled a large empire for about 500 years, from around 1700 BCE until about 1200 BCE. The empire declined once their monopoly on the secret of making iron was lost. The Hittites were hated for their harsh rule, and when the empire was defeated their capital was razed, buried, and forgotten. All inscriptions and references to the Hittites in Egypt and other countries were erased.

Only the Hebrew scriptures made references to the feared Hittite empire. For this reason most scholars considered the Biblical references to be myths and that the Hittites never existed.

It wasn't until archaeological evidence started to appear in the late 19th century that the ancient Hittite empire became known as fact.

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