What are the types of stoichiometry examples, with examples?
Mole-mole; mass-mole; volume-mole; mass-mass; mass-volume; volume-volume
Stoichiometry problems are usually classified according to the measurements used for the reactants involved — moles, mass, and volume.
Here are some examples of the types of problems you will encounter. Mole-mole conversions are at the heart of every stoichiometry calculation.
Sulfur reacts with oxygen to form sulfur trioxide according to the equation
2S + 3O₂ → 2SO₃
How many moles of sulfur react with 9.00 mol O₂?
9.00 mol O₂ ×
Oxygen is produced by the decomposition of potassium chlorate according to the equation
2KClO₃ →2KCl + 3O₂
How many moles of oxygen are produced by the decomposition of 15.0 g of potassium chlorate?
Here, you must convert grams of KClO₃ to moles of KClO₃ before you can do a mole-mole conversion.
15.0 g KClO₃ ×
What mass of KClO₃ must be decomposed in order to produce 0.200 mol O₂?
Here, we do the mole-mole conversion first and then do a mole-mass conversion.
0.200 mol O₂ ×
VOLUME- MOLE CONVERSIONS
Hydrogen and nitrogen react to form ammonia according to the equation
N₂ + 3H₂ → 2NH₃
How many moles of hydrogen are needed to produce 224 L NH₃?
Here, we must do a volume-mole conversion before the mole-mole conversion. The conversion factor at STP is
224 L NH₃ ×
If you are given the volume at some other temperature and pressure, you will have to use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate the number of moles.
What volume of NH₃ is formed from 15.0 mol H₂?
15.0 mol H₂ ×
What mass of chlorine can be formed by the decomposition of 64.0 g of AuCl₃ by the following reaction?
2AuCl₃ → 2 Au + 3Cl₂
64.0 g AuCl₃ ×
What volume of carbon dioxide at 1.00 atm and 112.0 °C will be produced when 80.0 g of methane is burned?
CH₄ + 2O₂ → CO₂ + 2H₂O
80.0 g CH₄ ×
We now use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate the volume of CO₂.
PV = nRT
n = 4.99 mol; R = 0.082 06 L•atm•K⁻¹mol⁻¹; 1.00 atm;
T = (112.0 + 273.15) K = 385.2 K; P = 1.00 atm
What mass of CO₂ is formed by the combustion of 160 L CH₄ at 1.00 atm and 112.0 °C?
We must first use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate the moles of CH₄.
PV = nRT
5.06 mol CH₄ ×
N₂ + 3H₂ → 2NH₃
What volume of hydrogen is necessary to react with 5.00 L of nitrogen to produce ammonia?
We would normally use the conversions
V of N₂ → moles of N₂ → moles of H₂→ V of H₂
The problem doesn’t give us the temperature or the pressure of the gases. However, we can use a trick. We know that 1 mol of any gas has the same volume as 1 mol of any other gas at the same temperature and pressure. Therefore, the volume ratios are the same as the molar ratios. We can write
5.00 L N₂×
Of course, if the gases had been at different temperatures, then we would have had to use the Ideal Gas Law to get the volume-mole conversions.