What is X-ray crystallography?
X-ray crystallography is basically an analytical technique to study the structures of crystalline atoms or molecules.
The gist of the process is that you fire an X-ray at a small ground-up, closely-packed solid sample. From the way the atom or molecule's crystal structure diffracts the incident X-ray, we can identify what the structure looks like.
The diffraction, called Bragg diffraction, looks roughly like the figure below. The angle