Kazakhstan enjoys a high quality of life, and mounting toxic waste is both a result of this and a growing threat to it.
Kazakhstan is the richest nation per capita in central Asia. (China has a higher GDP, but not in the regions near Kazakhstan.) SUV ownership is surprisingly high. This wealth is primarily due to industrial extraction of oil and minerals, which generates a lot of revenue but also generates a lot of toxic waste.
Toxic waste can't be recycled or moved out of the country. All they can do is store it and hope nothing happens to cause the barrels in underground caverns to rupture. The things that could cause this to happen are war, earthquakes, and reckless oil/mineral extraction methods. All three are a concern.