No, if you mean a single test applicable to any sample.
Because most of the 118 isolated elements (thus far) occur naturally in impure (compound) forms, and most useful solid materials are compounds, the first assumption would be that a solid is a compound, not an element.
Solid metals may be easier to identify by color and mass. There are many different mechanisms to analyze compounds for structure and composition. There is no one “universal” test that can identify all possible constituents in any possible mixture or compound.