What is genetic engineering?
Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of an organisms genome using biotechnology.
It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic make up of cells.
New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by isolating or copying the genetic material of interest , using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence. Using the technique of gene targeting , homologous recombination can change an endogenous gene, or delete a gene, remove exons , add a gene or introduce point mutations.
Genetic engineering of humans is called Gene Therapy. It is the replacement of defective genes with effective ones, and can occur in somatic or germline tissues.
Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organisms.
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